curl(1)                            Curl Manual                           curl(1)



NAME
       curl - transfer a URL

SYNOPSIS
       curl [options] [URL...]

DESCRIPTION
       curl  is  a  tool  to transfer data from or to a server, using one of the
       supported protocols (DICT, FILE, FTP, FTPS, GOPHER,  HTTP,  HTTPS,  IMAP,
       IMAPS, LDAP, LDAPS, POP3, POP3S, RTMP, RTSP, SCP, SFTP, SMTP, SMTPS, TEL‐
       NET and TFTP).  The command is designed to work without user interaction.

       curl offers a busload of useful tricks like proxy support, user authenti‐
       cation,  FTP  upload,  HTTP post, SSL connections, cookies, file transfer
       resume and more. As you will see below, the number of features will  make
       your head spin!

       curl  is  powered  by  libcurl  for  all  transfer-related  features. See
       libcurl(3) for details.

URL
       The URL syntax is protocol-dependent. You'll find a detailed  description
       in RFC 3986.

       You  can  specify  multiple  URLs  or  parts of URLs by writing part sets
       within braces as in:

        http://site.{one,two,three}.com

       or you can get sequences of alphanumeric series by using [] as in:

        ftp://ftp.numericals.com/file[1-100].txt
        ftp://ftp.numericals.com/file[001-100].txt    (with leading zeros)
        ftp://ftp.letters.com/file[a-z].txt

       Nested sequences are not supported, but you can use several ones next  to
       each other:

        http://any.org/archive[1996-1999]/vol[1-4]/part{a,b,c}.html

       You  can  specify  any  amount  of URLs on the command line. They will be
       fetched in a sequential manner in the specified order.

       You can specify a step counter for the ranges to get every Nth number  or
       letter:

        http://www.numericals.com/file[1-100:10].txt
        http://www.letters.com/file[a-z:2].txt

       If you specify URL without protocol:// prefix, curl will attempt to guess
       what protocol you might want. It will then default to HTTP but try  other
       protocols  based  on often-used host name prefixes. For example, for host
       names starting with "ftp." curl will assume you want to speak FTP.

       curl will do its best to use what you pass to it as a URL. It is not try‐
       ing  to  validate  it  as a syntactically correct URL by any means but is
       instead very liberal with what it accepts.

       Curl will attempt to re-use connections for multiple file  transfers,  so
       that  getting  many  files from the same server will not do multiple con‐
       nects / handshakes. This improves speed. Of course this is only  done  on
       files specified on a single command line and cannot be used between sepa‐
       rate curl invokes.

PROGRESS METER
       curl normally displays a progress meter during operations, indicating the
       amount of transferred data, transfer speeds and estimated time left, etc.

       curl displays this data to the terminal by default, so if you invoke curl
       to do an operation and it is about to write data to the terminal, it dis‐
       ables  the progress meter as otherwise it would mess up the output mixing
       progress meter and response data.

       If you want a progress meter for HTTP POST or PUT requests, you  need  to
       redirect  the  response  output  to  a file, using shell redirect (>), -o
       [file] or similar.

       It is not the same case for FTP upload as that operation  does  not  spit
       out any response data to the terminal.

       If  you  prefer a progress "bar" instead of the regular meter, -# is your
       friend.

OPTIONS
       In general, all boolean options are enabled with --option and  yet  again
       disabled  with  --no-option.  That is, you use the exact same option name
       but prefix it with "no-". However, in this list we mostly only  list  and
       show  the  --option  version of them. (This concept with --no options was
       added in 7.19.0. Previously most options were toggled on/off on  repeated
       use of the same command line option.)

       -#, --progress-bar
              Make curl display progress as a simple progress bar instead of the
              standard, more informational, meter.

       -0, --http1.0
              (HTTP) Forces curl to issue its requests using HTTP 1.0 instead of
              using its internally preferred: HTTP 1.1.

       -1, --tlsv1
              (SSL)  Forces  curl  to  use TLS version 1 when negotiating with a
              remote TLS server.

       -2, --sslv2
              (SSL) Forces curl to use SSL version 2  when  negotiating  with  a
              remote SSL server.

       -3, --sslv3
              (SSL)  Forces  curl  to  use SSL version 3 when negotiating with a
              remote SSL server.

       -4, --ipv4
              If libcurl is capable of resolving an address to multiple IP  ver‐
              sions  (which  it  is  if  it  is IPv6-capable), this option tells
              libcurl to resolve names to IPv4 addresses only.

       -6, --ipv6
              If libcurl is capable of resolving an address to multiple IP  ver‐
              sions  (which  it  is  if  it  is IPv6-capable), this option tells
              libcurl to resolve names to IPv6 addresses only.  default  statis‐
              tics.

       -a, --append
              (FTP/SFTP)  When  used in an upload, this will tell curl to append
              to the target file instead of overwriting it. If the file  doesn't
              exist, it will be created.  Note that this flag is ignored by some
              SSH servers (including OpenSSH).
       -A, --user-agent <agent string>
              (HTTP) Specify the User-Agent string to send to the  HTTP  server.
              Some   badly   done   CGIs   fail  if  this  field  isn't  set  to
              "Mozilla/4.0". To encode blanks in the string, surround the string
              with  single  quote  marks.  This  can  also  be  set with the -H,
              --header option of course.

              If this option is set more than once, the last one will be the one
              that's used.

       --anyauth
              (HTTP)  Tells  curl to figure out authentication method by itself,
              and use the most secure one the remote  site  claims  to  support.
              This  is  done by first doing a request and checking the response-
              headers, thus possibly inducing an extra network round-trip.  This
              is used instead of setting a specific authentication method, which
              you can do with --basic, --digest, --ntlm, and --negotiate.

              Note that using --anyauth is not recommended  if  you  do  uploads
              from  stdin,  since  it may require data to be sent twice and then
              the client must be able to rewind. If the need should  arise  when
              uploading from stdin, the upload operation will fail.

       -b, --cookie <name=data>
              (HTTP) Pass the data to the HTTP server as a cookie. It is suppos‐
              edly the data previously received  from  the  server  in  a  "Set-
              Cookie:"  line.   The  data should be in the format "NAME1=VALUE1;
              NAME2=VALUE2".

              If no '=' symbol is used in the line, it is treated as a  filename
              to  use  to read previously stored cookie lines from, which should
              be used in this session if they  match.  Using  this  method  also
              activates the "cookie parser" which will make curl record incoming
              cookies too, which may be handy if you're using this  in  combina‐
              tion  with  the -L, --location option. The file format of the file
              to read cookies from should be plain  HTTP  headers  or  the  Net‐
              scape/Mozilla cookie file format.

              NOTE  that  the  file  specified with -b, --cookie is only used as
              input. No cookies will be stored in the file.  To  store  cookies,
              use  the  -c,  --cookie-jar option or you could even save the HTTP
              headers to a file using -D, --dump-header!

              If this option is set more than once, the last one will be the one
              that's used.

       -B, --use-ascii
              Enable  ASCII  transfer  when using FTP or LDAP. For FTP, this can
              also be enforced by using an URL that ends  with  ";type=A".  This
              option  causes  data  sent  to stdout to be in text mode for win32
              systems.

       --basic
              (HTTP) Tells curl to use HTTP Basic authentication.  This  is  the
              default and this option is usually pointless, unless you use it to
              override a previously set option that sets a different authentica‐
              tion method (such as --ntlm, --digest, or --negotiate).

       -c, --cookie-jar <file name>
              Specify  to  which file you want curl to write all cookies after a
              completed operation. Curl writes all cookies previously read  from
              a  specified  file  as  well  as  all cookies received from remote
              server(s). If no cookies are known, no file will be  written.  The
              file will be written using the Netscape cookie file format. If you
              set the file name to a single dash, "-", the cookies will be writ‐
              ten to stdout.

              This  command  line  option  will  activate the cookie engine that
              makes curl record and use cookies. Another way to activate  it  is
              to use the -b, --cookie option.

              If  the  cookie jar can't be created or written to, the whole curl
              operation won't fail or even report an  error  clearly.  Using  -v
              will  get  a warning displayed, but that is the only visible feed‐
              back you get about this possibly lethal situation.

              If this option is used several times, the last specified file name
              will be used.

       -C, --continue-at <offset>
              Continue/Resume  a previous file transfer at the given offset. The
              given offset is the exact number of bytes that  will  be  skipped,
              counting from the beginning of the source file before it is trans‐
              ferred to the destination.  If used with uploads, the  FTP  server
              command SIZE will not be used by curl.

              Use  "-C  -"  to  tell curl to automatically find out where/how to
              resume the transfer. It then uses the given output/input files  to
              figure that out.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --ciphers <list of ciphers>
              (SSL)  Specifies  which ciphers to use in the connection. The list
              of ciphers must specify valid ciphers. Read up on SSL cipher  list
              details on this URL: http://www.openssl.org/docs/apps/ciphers.html

              NSS ciphers are done differently than OpenSSL and GnuTLS. The full
              list of NSS ciphers is in the NSSCipherSuite entry  at  this  URL:
              http://directory.fedora.redhat.com/docs/mod_nss.html#Directives

              If  this  option is used several times, the last one will override
              the others.

       --compressed
              (HTTP) Request a compressed response using one of  the  algorithms
              libcurl  supports,  and  save  the uncompressed document.  If this
              option is used and the server sends an unsupported encoding,  curl
              will report an error.

       --connect-timeout <seconds>
              Maximum  time  in  seconds  that  you  allow the connection to the
              server to take.  This only limits the connection phase, once  curl
              has  connected  this  option  is  of no more use. See also the -m,
              --max-time option.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --create-dirs
              When used in conjunction with the -o option, curl will create  the
              necessary local directory hierarchy as needed. This option creates
              the dirs mentioned with the -o option, nothing  else.  If  the  -o
              file name uses no dir or if the dirs it mentions already exist, no
              dir will be created.

              To create remote directories when using FTP or  SFTP,  try  --ftp-
              create-dirs.

       --crlf (FTP) Convert LF to CRLF in upload. Useful for MVS (OS/390).

       --crlfile <file>
              (HTTPS/FTPS)  Provide  a  file using PEM format with a Certificate
              Revocation List that may specify peer certificates that are to  be
              considered revoked.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              (Added in 7.19.7)

       -d, --data <data>
              (HTTP)  Sends  the  specified  data  in a POST request to the HTTP
              server, in the same way that a browser does when a user has filled
              in  an  HTML  form  and presses the submit button. This will cause
              curl to pass the data to the server using the content-type  appli‐
              cation/x-www-form-urlencoded.  Compare to -F, --form.

              -d,  --data  is  the  same  as  --data-ascii.  To post data purely
              binary, you should instead use the --data-binary option.  To  URL-
              encode the value of a form field you may use --data-urlencode.

              If any of these options is used more than once on the same command
              line, the data pieces specified will be  merged  together  with  a
              separating  &-symbol.  Thus, using '-d name=daniel -d skill=lousy'
              would    generate    a    post    chunk    that     looks     like
              'name=daniel&skill=lousy'.

              If you start the data with the letter @, the rest should be a file
              name to read the data from, or - if you want curl to read the data
              from stdin.  The contents of the file must already be URL-encoded.
              Multiple files can also be specified. Posting  data  from  a  file
              named 'foobar' would thus be done with --data @foobar.

       -D, --dump-header <file>
              Write the protocol headers to the specified file.

              This  option  is  handy  to use when you want to store the headers
              that a HTTP site sends to you. Cookies from the headers could then
              be  read  in  a  second  curl invocation by using the -b, --cookie
              option! The -c, --cookie-jar option is however  a  better  way  to
              store cookies.

              When  used  in  FTP,  the FTP server response lines are considered
              being "headers" and thus are saved there.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will  be  used.
              IP "--data-ascii <data>" See -d, --data.

       --data-binary <data>
              (HTTP) This posts data exactly as specified with no extra process‐
              ing whatsoever.

              If you start the data with the letter @,  the  rest  should  be  a
              filename.   Data  is  posted  in  a similar manner as --data-ascii
              does, except that newlines are preserved and conversions are never
              done.

              If this option is used several times, the ones following the first
              will append data as described in -d, --data.

       --data-urlencode <data>
              (HTTP) This posts data, similar to the other --data  options  with
              the exception that this performs URL-encoding. (Added in 7.18.0)

              To be CGI-compliant, the <data> part should begin with a name fol‐
              lowed by a separator and a content specification. The <data>  part
              can be passed to curl using one of the following syntaxes:

              content
                     This  will  make  curl URL-encode the content and pass that
                     on. Just be careful so that the content doesn't contain any
                     = or @ symbols, as that will then make the syntax match one
                     of the other cases below!

              =content
                     This will make curl URL-encode the content  and  pass  that
                     on. The preceding = symbol is not included in the data.

              name=content
                     This  will  make  curl URL-encode the content part and pass
                     that on. Note that the name part is  expected  to  be  URL-
                     encoded already.

              @filename
                     This  will make curl load data from the given file (includ‐
                     ing any newlines), URL-encode that data and pass it  on  in
                     the POST.

              name@filename
                     This  will make curl load data from the given file (includ‐
                     ing any newlines), URL-encode that data and pass it  on  in
                     the  POST.  The  name  part  gets  an  equal sign appended,
                     resulting in name=urlencoded-file-content.  Note  that  the
                     name is expected to be URL-encoded already.

       --delegation LEVEL
              Set  LEVEL  to tell the server what it is allowed to delegate when
              it comes to user credentials. Used with GSS/kerberos.

              none   Don't allow any delegation.

              policy Delegates if and only if the OK-AS-DELEGATE flag is set  in
                     the  Kerberos  service  ticket,  which is a matter of realm
                     policy.

              always Unconditionally allow the server to delegate.

       --digest
              (HTTP) Enables HTTP Digest authentication. This is  a  authentica‐
              tion  that  prevents the password from being sent over the wire in
              clear text. Use this in combination with  the  normal  -u,  --user
              option to set user name and password. See also --ntlm, --negotiate
              and --anyauth for related options.

              If this option is used several times,  the  following  occurrences
              make no difference.

       --disable-eprt
              (FTP)  Tell  curl to disable the use of the EPRT and LPRT commands
              when doing active FTP transfers. Curl will normally  always  first
              attempt  to  use  EPRT, then LPRT before using PORT, but with this
              option, it will use PORT right away. EPRT and LPRT are  extensions
              to the original FTP protocol, and may not work on all servers, but
              they enable more functionality in a better  way  than  the  tradi‐
              tional PORT command.

              --eprt  can  be used to explicitly enable EPRT again and --no-eprt
              is an alias for --disable-eprt.

              Disabling EPRT only changes the active behavior. If  you  want  to
              switch to passive mode you need to not use -P, --ftp-port or force
              it with --ftp-pasv.

       --disable-epsv
              (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use of the EPSV command when  doing
              passive  FTP transfers. Curl will normally always first attempt to
              use EPSV before PASV, but with this option, it will not try  using
              EPSV.

              --epsv  can  be used to explicitly enable EPSV again and --no-epsv
              is an alias for --disable-epsv.

              Disabling EPSV only changes the passive behavior. If you  want  to
              switch to active mode you need to use -P, --ftp-port.

       -e, --referer <URL>
              (HTTP)  Sends  the  "Referer Page" information to the HTTP server.
              This can also be set with the -H, --header flag of  course.   When
              used  with  -L, --location you can append ";auto" to the --referer
              URL to make curl automatically set the previous URL when  it  fol‐
              lows  a  Location:  header.  The ";auto" string can be used alone,
              even if you don't set an initial --referer.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -E, --cert <certificate[:password]>
              (SSL) Tells curl to use the specified client certificate file when
              getting a file with HTTPS, FTPS or another SSL-based protocol. The
              certificate must be in PEM format.  If the optional password isn't
              specified,  it will be queried for on the terminal. Note that this
              option assumes a "certificate" file that is the  private  key  and
              the  private  certificate  concatenated!  See  --cert and --key to
              specify them independently.

              If curl is built against the NSS SSL library then this option  can
              tell  curl  the  nickname of the certificate to use within the NSS
              database defined  by  the  environment  variable  SSL_DIR  (or  by
              default  /etc/pki/nssdb).  If  the  NSS  PEM  PKCS#11 module (lib‐
              nsspem.so) is available then PEM files may be loaded. If you  want
              to  use  a file from the current directory, please precede it with
              "./" prefix, in order to avoid confusion with a nickname.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --engine <name>
              Select the OpenSSL crypto engine to use for cipher operations. Use
              --engine  list  to  print  a list of build-time supported engines.
              Note that not all (or none) of the engines  may  be  available  at
              run-time.

       --environment
              (RISC  OS  ONLY)  Sets a range of environment variables, using the
              names the -w option supports, to allow easier extraction of useful
              information after having run curl.

       --egd-file <file>
              (SSL)  Specify  the  path  name  to  the  Entropy Gathering Daemon
              socket. The socket is used to seed the random engine for SSL  con‐
              nections. See also the --random-file option.

       --cert-type <type>
              (SSL) Tells curl what certificate type the provided certificate is
              in. PEM, DER and ENG are recognized types.  If not specified,  PEM
              is assumed.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --cacert <CA certificate>
              (SSL)  Tells  curl to use the specified certificate file to verify
              the peer. The file may contain multiple CA certificates. The  cer‐
              tificate(s) must be in PEM format. Normally curl is built to use a
              default file for this, so this option is typically used  to  alter
              that default file.

              curl recognizes the environment variable named 'CURL_CA_BUNDLE' if
              it is set, and uses the given path as a path to a CA cert  bundle.
              This option overrides that variable.

              The windows version of curl will automatically look for a CA certs
              file named ´curl-ca-bundle.crt´, either in the same  directory  as
              curl.exe,  or  in  the Current Working Directory, or in any folder
              along your PATH.

              If curl is built against the NSS  SSL  library  then  this  option
              tells  curl  the  nickname of the CA certificate to use within the
              NSS database defined by the environment variable  SSL_DIR  (or  by
              default  /etc/pki/nssdb).   If  the  NSS  PEM PKCS#11 module (lib‐
              nsspem.so) is available then PEM files may be loaded.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --capath <CA certificate directory>
              (SSL) Tells curl to use the  specified  certificate  directory  to
              verify the peer. Multiple paths can be provided by separating them
              with ":" (e.g.  "path1:path2:path3"). The certificates must be  in
              PEM  format,  and  if curl is built against OpenSSL, the directory
              must have been processed using the c_rehash utility supplied  with
              OpenSSL.  Using  --capath  can  allow OpenSSL-powered curl to make
              SSL-connections much more efficiently than using --cacert  if  the
              --cacert file contains many CA certificates.

              If  this  option is set, the default capath value will be ignored,
              and if it is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -f, --fail
              (HTTP) Fail silently (no output at all) on server errors. This  is
              mostly  done  to  better  enable  scripts  etc to better deal with
              failed attempts. In normal cases  when  a  HTTP  server  fails  to
              deliver  a document, it returns an HTML document stating so (which
              often also describes why and more). This flag  will  prevent  curl
              from outputting that and return error 22.

              This  method  is  not fail-safe and there are occasions where non-
              successful response  codes  will  slip  through,  especially  when
              authentication is involved (response codes 401 and 407).

       -F, --form <name=content>
              (HTTP) This lets curl emulate a filled-in form in which a user has
              pressed the submit button. This causes curl to POST data using the
              Content-Type  multipart/form-data  according  to  RFC  2388.  This
              enables uploading of binary files etc. To force the 'content' part
              to be a file, prefix the file name with an @ sign. To just get the
              content part from a file, prefix the file name with the symbol  <.
              The  difference  between  @  and < is then that @ makes a file get
              attached in the post as a file upload, while the <  makes  a  text
              field and just get the contents for that text field from a file.

              Example,  to  send  your password file to the server, where 'pass‐
              word' is the name of the form-field to which /etc/passwd  will  be
              the input:

              curl -F password=@/etc/passwd www.mypasswords.com

              To  read  content from stdin instead of a file, use - as the file‐
              name. This goes for both @ and < constructs.

              You can also tell curl what Content-Type to use by using  'type=',
              in a manner similar to:

              curl -F "web=@index.html;type=text/html" url.com

              or

              curl -F "name=daniel;type=text/foo" url.com

              You  can  also  explicitly  change the name field of a file upload
              part by setting filename=, like this:

              curl -F "file=@localfile;filename=nameinpost" url.com

              See further examples and details in the MANUAL.

              This option can be used multiple times.

       --ftp-account [data]
              (FTP) When an FTP server asks for "account data" after  user  name
              and  password  has  been provided, this data is sent off using the
              ACCT command. (Added in 7.13.0)

              If this option is used twice, the second will override the  previ‐
              ous use.

       --ftp-alternative-to-user <command>
              (FTP)  If  authenticating  with  the USER and PASS commands fails,
              send this command.  When connecting to Tumbleweed's Secure  Trans‐
              port  server  over  FTPS  using  a client certificate, using "SITE
              AUTH" will tell the server to retrieve the username from the  cer‐
              tificate. (Added in 7.15.5)

       --ftp-create-dirs
              (FTP/SFTP)  When  an  FTP  or  SFTP URL/operation uses a path that
              doesn't currently exist on the server, the  standard  behavior  of
              curl  is  to fail. Using this option, curl will instead attempt to
              create missing directories.

       --ftp-method [method]
              (FTP) Control what method curl should use to reach  a  file  on  a
              FTP(S)  server. The method argument should be one of the following
              alternatives:

              multicwd
                     curl does a single CWD operation for each path part in  the
                     given  URL.  For deep hierarchies this means very many com‐
                     mands. This is how RFC 1738 says it should be done. This is
                     the default but the slowest behavior.

              nocwd  curl  does no CWD at all. curl will do SIZE, RETR, STOR etc
                     and give a full path to the server for all these  commands.
                     This is the fastest behavior.

              singlecwd
                     curl  does  one CWD with the full target directory and then
                     operates on the  file  "normally"  (like  in  the  multicwd
                     case).  This  is  somewhat  more  standards  compliant than
                     'nocwd' but without the full penalty of 'multicwd'.
       (Added in 7.15.1)

       --ftp-pasv
              (FTP) Use passive mode for the data  connection.  Passive  is  the
              internal  default  behavior,  but using this option can be used to
              override a previous -P/-ftp-port option. (Added in 7.11.0)

              If this option is used several times,  the  following  occurrences
              make  no  difference.  Undoing  an  enforced  passive really isn't
              doable but you must then instead enforce the  correct  -P,  --ftp-
              port again.

              Passive  mode  means that curl will try the EPSV command first and
              then PASV, unless --disable-epsv is used.

       --ftp-skip-pasv-ip
              (FTP) Tell curl to not use the IP address the server  suggests  in
              its  response  to  curl's PASV command when curl connects the data
              connection. Instead curl  will  re-use  the  same  IP  address  it
              already uses for the control connection. (Added in 7.14.2)

              This option has no effect if PORT, EPRT or EPSV is used instead of
              PASV.

       --ftp-pret
              (FTP) Tell curl to send a PRET command  before  PASV  (and  EPSV).
              Certain FTP servers, mainly drftpd, require this non-standard com‐
              mand for directory listings as well as up and  downloads  in  PASV
              mode.  (Added in 7.20.x)

       --ftp-ssl-ccc
              (FTP) Use CCC (Clear Command Channel) Shuts down the SSL/TLS layer
              after authenticating. The rest of the control  channel  communica‐
              tion  will  be  unencrypted. This allows NAT routers to follow the
              FTP transaction. The default mode is passive.  See  --ftp-ssl-ccc-
              mode for other modes.  (Added in 7.16.1)

       --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode [active/passive]
              (FTP)  Use CCC (Clear Command Channel) Sets the CCC mode. The pas‐
              sive mode will not initiate the shutdown, but instead wait for the
              server  to  do  it,  and  will  not reply to the shutdown from the
              server. The active mode initiates the shutdown  and  waits  for  a
              reply from the server.  (Added in 7.16.2)

       --ftp-ssl-control
              (FTP)  Require  SSL/TLS  for  the  FTP  login, clear for transfer.
              Allows secure authentication, but non-encrypted data transfers for
              efficiency.   Fails  the  transfer  if  the server doesn't support
              SSL/TLS.  (Added in 7.16.0) that can still be  used  but  will  be
              removed in a future version.

       --form-string <name=string>
              (HTTP)  Similar  to  --form  except  that the value string for the
              named parameter is used literally. Leading '@' and '<' characters,
              and  the ';type=' string in the value have no special meaning. Use
              this in preference to --form if there's any possibility  that  the
              string  value  may accidentally trigger the '@' or '<' features of
              --form.

       -g, --globoff
              This option switches off the "URL globbing parser". When  you  set
              this  option,  you  can specify URLs that contain the letters {}[]
              without having them being interpreted by curl  itself.  Note  that
              these letters are not normal legal URL contents but they should be
              encoded according to the URI standard.

       -G, --get
              When used, this option will  make  all  data  specified  with  -d,
              --data  or  --data-binary to be used in a HTTP GET request instead
              of the POST request that otherwise would be used. The data will be
              appended to the URL with a '?' separator.

              If  used  in  combination  with  -I, the POST data will instead be
              appended to the URL with a HEAD request.

              If this option is used several times,  the  following  occurrences
              make  no  difference.  This  is because undoing a GET doesn't make
              sense, but you should then instead enforce the alternative  method
              you prefer.

       -H, --header <header>
              (HTTP)  Extra header to use when getting a web page. You may spec‐
              ify any number of extra headers. Note that if  you  should  add  a
              custom  header  that has the same name as one of the internal ones
              curl would use, your externally set header will be used instead of
              the internal one. This allows you to make even trickier stuff than
              curl would normally do. You  should  not  replace  internally  set
              headers  without  knowing perfectly well what you're doing. Remove
              an internal header by giving a replacement without content on  the
              right side of the colon, as in: -H "Host:". If you send the custom
              header with no-value then its header must  be  terminated  with  a
              semicolon,  such  as  -H  "X-Custom-Header;"  to  send  "X-Custom-
              Header:".

              curl will make sure that each header you add/replace is sent  with
              the  proper  end-of-line marker, you should thus not add that as a
              part of the header  content:  do  not  add  newlines  or  carriage
              returns, they will only mess things up for you.

              See also the -A, --user-agent and -e, --referer options.

              This  option can be used multiple times to add/replace/remove mul‐
              tiple headers.

       --hostpubmd5 <md5>
              Pass a string containing 32 hexadecimal digits. The string  should
              be  the 128 bit MD5 checksum of the remote host's public key, curl
              will refuse the connection with the host unless the md5sums match.
              This option is only for SCP and SFTP transfers. (Added in 7.17.1)

       --ignore-content-length
              (HTTP) Ignore the Content-Length header. This is particularly use‐
              ful for servers running Apache 1.x, which  will  report  incorrect
              Content-Length for files larger than 2 gigabytes.

       -i, --include
              (HTTP)  Include  the  HTTP-header  in  the output. The HTTP-header
              includes things like server-name, date of the document,  HTTP-ver‐
              sion and more...

       -I, --head
              (HTTP/FTP/FILE)  Fetch  the HTTP-header only! HTTP-servers feature
              the command HEAD which this uses to get nothing but the header  of
              a  document.  When  used  on a FTP or FILE file, curl displays the
              file size and last modification time only.

       --interface <name>
              Perform an operation using a specified interface.  You  can  enter
              interface  name,  IP  address  or host name. An example could look
              like:

               curl --interface eth0:1 http://www.netscape.com/

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -j, --junk-session-cookies
              (HTTP) When curl is told to read cookies from a given  file,  this
              option will make it discard all "session cookies". This will basi‐
              cally have the same effect as if a new session is started. Typical
              browsers always discard session cookies when they're closed down.

       -J, --remote-header-name
              (HTTP)  This  option tells the -O, --remote-name option to use the
              server-specified Content-Disposition filename instead of  extract‐
              ing a filename from the URL.

       -k, --insecure
              (SSL) This option explicitly allows curl to perform "insecure" SSL
              connections and transfers. All SSL connections are attempted to be
              made  secure  by  using  the  CA  certificate  bundle installed by
              default. This makes all  connections  considered  "insecure"  fail
              unless -k, --insecure is used.

              See     this     online     resource    for    further    details:
              http://curl.haxx.se/docs/sslcerts.html

       -K, --config <config file>
              Specify which config file to read curl arguments from. The  config
              file is a text file in which command line arguments can be written
              which then will be used as if they were written on the actual com‐
              mand  line.  Options and their parameters must be specified on the
              same config file line, separated by whitespace, colon, the  equals
              sign  or any combination thereof (however, the preferred separator
              is the equals sign). If the parameter is  to  contain  whitespace,
              the  parameter  must  be  enclosed  within  quotes.  Within double
              quotes, the following escape sequences are available: \\, \",  \t,
              \n,  \r and \v. A backslash preceding any other letter is ignored.
              If the first column of a config line is a '#' character, the  rest
              of  the  line  will be treated as a comment. Only write one option
              per physical line in the config file.

              Specify the filename to -K, --config as '-' to make curl read  the
              file from stdin.

              Note that to be able to specify a URL in the config file, you need
              to specify it using the --url option, and not  by  simply  writing
              the URL on its own line. So, it could look similar to this:

              url = "http://curl.haxx.se/docs/"

              Long option names can optionally be given in the config file with‐
              out the initial double dashes.

              When curl is invoked, it always (unless -q is used) checks  for  a
              default  config file and uses it if found. The default config file
              is checked for in the following places in this order:

              1) curl tries to find the "home dir":  It  first  checks  for  the
              CURL_HOME  and  then the HOME environment variables. Failing that,
              it uses getpwuid() on UNIX-like systems (which  returns  the  home
              dir  given  the  current user in your system). On Windows, it then
              checks for the APPDATA variable, or as a last resort  the  '%USER‐
              PROFILE%\Application Data'.

              2)  On  windows,  if  there is no _curlrc file in the home dir, it
              checks for one in the same dir the curl executable is  placed.  On
              UNIX-like  systems,  it  will  simply try to load .curlrc from the
              determined home dir.

              # --- Example file ---
              # this is a comment
              url = "curl.haxx.se"
              output = "curlhere.html"
              user-agent = "superagent/1.0"

              # and fetch another URL too
              url = "curl.haxx.se/docs/manpage.html"
              -O
              referer = "http://nowhereatall.com/"
              # --- End of example file ---

              This option can be used multiple times  to  load  multiple  config
              files.

       --keepalive-time <seconds>
              This option sets the time a connection needs to remain idle before
              sending keepalive probes and the time between individual keepalive
              probes.  It  is  currently effective on operating systems offering
              the TCP_KEEPIDLE and TCP_KEEPINTVL socket options (meaning  Linux,
              recent  AIX,  HP-UX  and more). This option has no effect if --no-
              keepalive is used. (Added in 7.18.0)

              If this option is used multiple times, the  last  occurrence  sets
              the amount. If unspecified, the option defaults to 60 seconds.

       --key <key>
              (SSL/SSH)  Private  key file name. Allows you to provide your pri‐
              vate key in this separate file.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --key-type <type>
              (SSL) Private key file type. Specify which type  your  --key  pro‐
              vided  private  key  is.  DER,  PEM, and ENG are supported. If not
              specified, PEM is assumed.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --krb <level>
              (FTP) Enable Kerberos authentication and use. The  level  must  be
              entered  and  should be one of 'clear', 'safe', 'confidential', or
              'private'. Should you use a level that is not one of these,  'pri‐
              vate' will instead be used.

              This  option  requires  a  library  built with kerberos4 or GSSAPI
              (GSS-Negotiate) support. This is not very common. Use  -V,  --ver‐
              sion to see if your curl supports it.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -l, --list-only
              (FTP)  When  listing  an FTP directory, this switch forces a name-
              only view.  Especially useful if you  want  to  machine-parse  the
              contents  of  an  FTP  directory  since  the normal directory view
              doesn't use a standard look or format.

              This option causes an FTP NLST  command  to  be  sent.   Some  FTP
              servers  list  only  files  in their response to NLST; they do not
              include subdirectories and symbolic links.


       -L, --location
              (HTTP/HTTPS) If the server reports that  the  requested  page  has
              moved  to  a different location (indicated with a Location: header
              and a 3XX response code), this option  will  make  curl  redo  the
              request  on  the new place. If used together with -i, --include or
              -I, --head, headers from all requested pages will be  shown.  When
              authentication  is  used,  curl  only sends its credentials to the
              initial host. If a redirect takes curl to  a  different  host,  it
              won't be able to intercept the user+password. See also --location-
              trusted on how to change this. You can limit the amount  of  redi‐
              rects to follow by using the --max-redirs option.

              When  curl  follows  a redirect and the request is not a plain GET
              (for example POST or PUT), it will do the following request with a
              GET  if  the  HTTP  response was 301, 302, or 303. If the response
              code was any other 3xx  code,  curl  will  re-send  the  following
              request using the same unmodified method.

       --libcurl <file>
              Append this option to any ordinary curl command line, and you will
              get a libcurl-using C source code written to the  file  that  does
              the equivalent of what your command-line operation does!

              If  this  option  is  used several times, the last given file name
              will be used. (Added in 7.16.1)

       --limit-rate <speed>
              Specify the maximum transfer rate you want curl to use. This  fea‐
              ture  is  useful  if  you  have a limited pipe and you'd like your
              transfer not to use your entire bandwidth.

              The given speed is measured in bytes/second, unless  a  suffix  is
              appended.   Appending  'k'  or  'K' will count the number as kilo‐
              bytes, 'm' or M' makes it megabytes, while 'g'  or  'G'  makes  it
              gigabytes. Examples: 200K, 3m and 1G.

              The  given  rate  is  the  average speed counted during the entire
              transfer. It means that curl might use higher transfer  speeds  in
              short bursts, but over time it uses no more than the given rate.

              If  you  also  use  the -Y, --speed-limit option, that option will
              take precedence and might cripple the rate-limiting  slightly,  to
              help keeping the speed-limit logic working.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --local-port <num>[-num]
              Set  a  preferred number or range of local port numbers to use for
              the connection(s).  Note that port numbers by nature are a  scarce
              resource that will be busy at times so setting this range to some‐
              thing too narrow might cause unnecessary  connection  setup  fail‐
              ures. (Added in 7.15.2)

       --location-trusted
              (HTTP/HTTPS)  Like -L, --location, but will allow sending the name
              + password to all hosts that the site may redirect to. This may or
              may not introduce a security breach if the site redirects you to a
              site to which you'll  send  your  authentication  info  (which  is
              plaintext in the case of HTTP Basic authentication).

       -m, --max-time <seconds>
              Maximum  time  in  seconds  that  you allow the whole operation to
              take.  This is useful for preventing your batch jobs from  hanging
              for  hours due to slow networks or links going down.  See also the
              --connect-timeout option.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --mail-auth <address>
              (SMTP) Specify a single address. This will be used to specify  the
              authentication  address  (identity) of a submitted message that is
              being relayed to another server.

              (Added in 7.25.0)

       --mail-from <address>
              (SMTP) Specify a single address that the  given  mail  should  get
              sent from.

              (Added in 7.20.0)

       --max-filesize <bytes>
              Specify  the maximum size (in bytes) of a file to download. If the
              file requested is larger than this value, the  transfer  will  not
              start and curl will return with exit code 63.

              NOTE: The file size is not always known prior to download, and for
              such files this option has no effect even  if  the  file  transfer
              ends up being larger than this given limit. This concerns both FTP
              and HTTP transfers.

       --mail-rcpt <address>
              (SMTP) Specify a single address that the  given  mail  should  get
              sent  to.  This  option can be used multiple times to specify many
              recipients.

              (Added in 7.20.0)
       --max-redirs <num>
              Set maximum  number  of  redirection-followings  allowed.  If  -L,
              --location  is  used, this option can be used to prevent curl from
              following redirections "in absurdum". By default, the limit is set
              to 50 redirections. Set this option to -1 to make it limitless.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -n, --netrc
              Makes  curl scan the .netrc (_netrc on Windows) file in the user's
              home directory for login name and password. This is typically used
              for  FTP on UNIX. If used with HTTP, curl will enable user authen‐
              tication. See netrc(4) or ftp(1) for details on the  file  format.
              Curl will not complain if that file doesn't have the right permis‐
              sions (it should not be  either  world-  or  group-readable).  The
              environment variable "HOME" is used to find the home directory.

              A  quick and very simple example of how to setup a .netrc to allow
              curl to FTP to the machine host.domain.com with user name 'myself'
              and password 'secret' should look similar to:

              machine host.domain.com login myself password secret

       -N, --no-buffer
              Disables the buffering of the output stream. In normal work situa‐
              tions, curl will use a standard buffered output stream  that  will
              have the effect that it will output the data in chunks, not neces‐
              sarily exactly when the data arrives.  Using this option will dis‐
              able that buffering.

              Note that this is the negated option name documented. You can thus
              use --buffer to enforce the buffering.

       --netrc-file
              This option is similar to --netrc, except  that  you  provide  the
              path  (absolute  or  relative)  to the netrc file that Curl should
              use.  You can only specify one netrc file per invocation. If  sev‐
              eral  --netrc-file options are provided, only the last one will be
              used.  (Added in 7.21.5)

              This option overrides any use of  --netrc  as  they  are  mutually
              exclusive.  It will also abide by --netrc-optional if specified.


       --netrc-optional
              Very  similar  to  --netrc, but this option makes the .netrc usage
              optional and not mandatory as the --netrc option does.


       --negotiate
              (HTTP) Enables  GSS-Negotiate  authentication.  The  GSS-Negotiate
              method was designed by Microsoft and is used in their web applica‐
              tions. It is primarily meant as a support for Kerberos5  authenti‐
              cation  but  may  be  also  used along with another authentication
              method. For more information see IETF  draft  draft-brezak-spnego-
              http-04.txt.

              If  you  want  to  enable Negotiate for your proxy authentication,
              then use --proxy-negotiate.

              This option requires a library built with GSSAPI support. This  is
              not very common. Use -V, --version to see if your version supports
              GSS-Negotiate.

              When using this option, you must also provide a  fake  -u,  --user
              option to activate the authentication code properly. Sending a '-u
              :' is enough as the user name and  password  from  the  -u  option
              aren't actually used.
              If  this  option  is used several times, the following occurrences
              make no difference.

       --no-keepalive
              Disables the use of keepalive messages on the TCP  connection,  as
              by default curl enables them.

              Note that this is the negated option name documented. You can thus
              use --keepalive to enforce keepalive.

       --no-sessionid
              (SSL) Disable curl's use of SSL session-ID  caching.   By  default
              all  transfers  are  done using the cache. Note that while nothing
              should ever get hurt by attempting to reuse SSL session-IDs, there
              seem to be broken SSL implementations in the wild that may require
              you to disable this in order for you to succeed. (Added in 7.16.0)

              Note that this is the negated option name documented. You can thus
              use --sessionid to enforce session-ID caching.

       --noproxy <no-proxy-list>
              Comma-separated  list of hosts which do not use a proxy, if one is
              specified.  The only wildcard  is  a  single  *  character,  which
              matches  all  hosts, and effectively disables the proxy. Each name
              in this list is matched as either  a  domain  which  contains  the
              hostname,  or  the  hostname  itself. For example, local.com would
              match local.com, local.com:80, and www.local.com, but not www.not‐
              local.com.  (Added in 7.19.4).

       --ntlm (HTTP) Enables NTLM authentication. The NTLM authentication method
              was designed by Microsoft and is used by IIS web servers. It is  a
              proprietary  protocol,  reverse-engineered  by  clever  people and
              implemented in curl based on their efforts. This kind of  behavior
              should  not  be  endorsed,  you should encourage everyone who uses
              NTLM to switch to a public and  documented  authentication  method
              instead, such as Digest.

              If you want to enable NTLM for your proxy authentication, then use
              --proxy-ntlm.

              This option requires a library built with  SSL  support.  Use  -V,
              --version to see if your curl supports NTLM.

              If  this  option  is used several times, the following occurrences
              make no difference.

       -o, --output <file>
              Write output to <file> instead of stdout. If you are using  {}  or
              [] to fetch multiple documents, you can use '#' followed by a num‐
              ber in the <file> specifier. That variable will be  replaced  with
              the current string for the URL being fetched. Like in:

                curl http://{one,two}.site.com -o "file_#1.txt"

              or use several variables like:

                curl http://{site,host}.host[1-5].com -o "#1_#2"

              You  may  use  this option as many times as the number of URLs you
              have.

              See also the --create-dirs option to create the local  directories
              dynamically.  Specifying  the  output  as '-' (a single dash) will
              force the output to be done to stdout.

       -O, --remote-name
              Write output to a local file named like the remote  file  we  get.
              (Only  the  file  part of the remote file is used, the path is cut
              off.)

              The remote file name to use for saving is extracted from the given
              URL, nothing else.

              Consequentially,  the  file  will  be saved in the current working
              directory. If you want the file saved in  a  different  directory,
              make  sure  you change current working directory before you invoke
              curl with the -O, --remote-name flag!

              You may use this option as many times as the number  of  URLs  you
              have.

       -p, --proxytunnel
              When  an  HTTP proxy is used (-x, --proxy), this option will cause
              non-HTTP protocols to attempt to tunnel through the proxy  instead
              of merely using it to do HTTP-like operations. The tunnel approach
              is made with the HTTP proxy CONNECT request and requires that  the
              proxy  allows  direct connect to the remote port number curl wants
              to tunnel through to.

       -P, --ftp-port <address>
              (FTP) Reverses the default initiator/listener roles when  connect‐
              ing with FTP. This switch makes curl use active mode. In practice,
              curl then tells the server to connect back to the client's  speci‐
              fied address and port, while passive mode asks the server to setup
              an IP address and port for it to connect to. <address>  should  be
              one of:

              interface
                     i.e "eth0" to specify which interface's IP address you want
                     to use (Unix only)

              IP address
                     i.e "192.168.10.1" to specify the exact IP address

              host name
                     i.e "my.host.domain" to specify the machine

              -      make curl pick the same IP address that is already used for
                     the control connection

       If  this option is used several times, the last one will be used. Disable
       the use of PORT with --ftp-pasv. Disable the attempt to use the EPRT com‐
       mand instead of PORT by using --disable-eprt. EPRT is really PORT++.

       Starting  in  7.19.5, you can append ":[start]-[end]" to the right of the
       address, to tell curl what TCP port range to use. That means you  specify
       a  port  range, from a lower to a higher number. A single number works as
       well, but do note that it increases the risk of failure  since  the  port
       may not be available.

       --pass <phrase>
              (SSL/SSH) Passphrase for the private key

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --post301
              Tells  curl  to  respect  RFC  2616/10.3.2  and  not  convert POST
              requests into GET requests when following a 301  redirection.  The
              non-RFC  behaviour is ubiquitous in web browsers, so curl does the
              conversion by default to maintain consistency. However,  a  server
              may require a POST to remain a POST after such a redirection. This
              option is meaningful only when  using  -L,  --location  (Added  in
              7.17.1)

       --post302
              Tells  curl  to  respect  RFC  2616/10.3.2  and  not  convert POST
              requests into GET requests when following a 302  redirection.  The
              non-RFC  behaviour is ubiquitous in web browsers, so curl does the
              conversion by default to maintain consistency. However,  a  server
              may require a POST to remain a POST after such a redirection. This
              option is meaningful only when  using  -L,  --location  (Added  in
              7.19.1)

       --proto <protocols>
              Tells  curl to use the listed protocols for its initial retrieval.
              Protocols are evaluated left to right, are  comma  separated,  and
              are  each a protocol name or 'all', optionally prefixed by zero or
              more modifiers. Available modifiers are:

              +  Permit this protocol in addition to protocols already permitted
                 (this is the default if no modifier is used).

              -  Deny  this  protocol,  removing  it  from the list of protocols
                 already permitted.

              =  Permit only this protocol (ignoring the  list  already  permit‐
                 ted),  though  subject  to  later  modification  by  subsequent
                 entries in the comma separated list.

              For example:

              --proto -ftps  uses the default protocols, but disables ftps

              --proto -all,https,+http
                             only enables http and https

              --proto =http,https
                             also only enables http and https

              Unknown protocols produce a warning. This allows scripts to safely
              rely  on  being  able  to disable potentially dangerous protocols,
              without relying upon support for that protocol  being  built  into
              curl to avoid an error.

              This  option  can be used multiple times, in which case the effect
              is the same as concatenating the protocols into  one  instance  of
              the option.

              (Added in 7.20.2)

       --proto-redir <protocols>
              Tells  curl  to  use  the  listed  protocols after a redirect. See
              --proto for how protocols are represented.

              (Added in 7.20.2)

       --proxy-anyauth
              Tells curl to pick a suitable authentication method when  communi‐
              cating   with   the   given  proxy.  This  might  cause  an  extra
              request/response round-trip. (Added in 7.13.2)

       --proxy-basic
              Tells curl to use HTTP  Basic  authentication  when  communicating
              with  the  given proxy. Use --basic for enabling HTTP Basic with a
              remote host. Basic is the default authentication method curl  uses
              with proxies.

       --proxy-digest
              Tells  curl  to  use HTTP Digest authentication when communicating
              with the given proxy. Use --digest for enabling HTTP Digest with a
              remote host.

       --proxy-negotiate
              Tells curl to use HTTP Negotiate authentication when communicating
              with the given proxy. Use --negotiate for enabling HTTP  Negotiate
              with a remote host. (Added in 7.17.1)
       --proxy-ntlm
              Tells curl to use HTTP NTLM authentication when communicating with
              the given proxy. Use --ntlm for enabling NTLM with a remote host.

       --proxy1.0 <proxyhost[:port]>
              Use the specified HTTP 1.0 proxy. If the port number is not speci‐
              fied, it is assumed at port 1080.

              The  only  difference  between this and the HTTP proxy option (-x,
              --proxy), is that attempts to use CONNECT through the  proxy  will
              specify an HTTP 1.0 protocol instead of the default HTTP 1.1.

       --pubkey <key>
              (SSH)  Public key file name. Allows you to provide your public key
              in this separate file.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -q     If used as the first parameter on the  command  line,  the  curlrc
              config  file  will  not be read and used. See the -K, --config for
              details on the default config file search path.

       -Q, --quote <command>
              (FTP/SFTP) Send an arbitrary command to the  remote  FTP  or  SFTP
              server.  Quote  commands  are sent BEFORE the transfer takes place
              (just after the initial PWD command in  an  FTP  transfer,  to  be
              exact).  To  make commands take place after a successful transfer,
              prefix them with a dash '-'.   To  make  commands  be  sent  after
              libcurl  has changed the working directory, just before the trans‐
              fer command(s), prefix the command with a '+' (this is  only  sup‐
              ported  for  FTP).  You may specify any number of commands. If the
              server returns failure for one of the commands, the entire  opera‐
              tion will be aborted. You must send syntactically correct FTP com‐
              mands as RFC 959 defines to FTP servers, or one  of  the  commands
              listed  below  to  SFTP servers.  This option can be used multiple
              times. When speaking to a FTP server, prefix the command  with  an
              asterisk (*) to make libcurl continue even if the command fails as
              by default curl will stop at first failure.

              SFTP is a binary protocol. Unlike for FTP, libcurl interprets SFTP
              quote  commands  itself  before  sending them to the server.  File
              names may be quoted shell-style to embed spaces or special charac‐
              ters.  Following is the list of all supported SFTP quote commands:

              chgrp group file
                     The  chgrp  command  sets the group ID of the file named by
                     the file operand to the group ID specified by the group op‐
                     erand. The group operand is a decimal integer group ID.

              chmod mode file
                     The chmod command modifies the file mode bits of the speci‐
                     fied file. The mode operand is an octal integer  mode  num‐
                     ber.

              chown user file
                     The  chown  command sets the owner of the file named by the
                     file operand to the user ID specified by the user  operand.
                     The user operand is a decimal integer user ID.

              ln source_file target_file
                     The  ln  and symlink commands create a symbolic link at the
                     target_file location pointing to the source_file location.

              mkdir directory_name
                     The mkdir command creates the directory named by the direc‐
                     tory_name operand.

              pwd    The  pwd  command returns the absolute pathname of the cur‐
                     rent working directory.

              rename source target
                     The rename command renames the file or directory  named  by
                     the  source  operand  to  the destination path named by the
                     target operand.

              rm file
                     The rm command removes the file specified by the file oper‐
                     and.

              rmdir directory
                     The  rmdir command removes the directory entry specified by
                     the directory operand, provided it is empty.

              symlink source_file target_file
                     See ln.

       -r, --range <range>
              (HTTP/FTP/SFTP/FILE) Retrieve a byte range (i.e  a  partial  docu‐
              ment)  from a HTTP/1.1, FTP or SFTP server or a local FILE. Ranges
              can be specified in a number of ways.

              0-499     specifies the first 500 bytes

              500-999   specifies the second 500 bytes

              -500      specifies the last 500 bytes

              9500-     specifies the bytes from offset 9500 and forward

              0-0,-1    specifies the first and last byte only(*)(H)

              500-700,600-799
                        specifies 300 bytes from offset 500(H)

              100-199,500-599
                        specifies two separate 100-byte ranges(*)(H)

       (*) = NOTE that this will cause the server  to  reply  with  a  multipart
       response!

       Only digit characters (0-9) are valid in the 'start' and 'stop' fields of
       the 'start-stop' range syntax. If a non-digit character is given  in  the
       range,  the  server's  response  will  be  unspecified,  depending on the
       server's configuration.

       You should also be aware that many HTTP/1.1 servers do not have this fea‐
       ture enabled, so that when you attempt to get a range, you'll instead get
       the whole document.

       FTP and SFTP range downloads only support the simple 'start-stop'  syntax
       (optionally  with  one  of  the  numbers omitted). FTP use depends on the
       extended FTP command SIZE.

       If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -R, --remote-time
              When used, this will make libcurl attempt to figure out the  time‐
              stamp  of the remote file, and if that is available make the local
              file get that same timestamp.

       --random-file <file>
              (SSL) Specify the path name to file containing what will  be  con‐
              sidered as random data. The data is used to seed the random engine
              for SSL connections.  See also the --egd-file option.

       --raw  When used, it disables all internal HTTP decoding  of  content  or
              transfer  encodings  and  instead  makes them passed on unaltered,
              raw. (Added in 7.16.2)

       --remote-name-all
              This option changes the default action for all given  URLs  to  be
              dealt  with  as if -O, --remote-name were used for each one. So if
              you want to disable that for a specific URL  after  --remote-name-
              all has been used, you must use "-o -" or --no-remote-name. (Added
              in 7.19.0)

       --resolve <host:port:address>
              Provide a custom address for a specific host and port pair.  Using
              this,  you  can  make the curl requests(s) use a specified address
              and prevent the otherwise normally resolved address  to  be  used.
              Consider  it a sort of /etc/hosts alternative provided on the com‐
              mand line. The port number should be the number used for the  spe‐
              cific  protocol  the host will be used for. It means you need sev‐
              eral entries if you want to provide address for the same host  but
              different ports.

              This  option  can  be  used  many  times to add many host names to
              resolve.

              (Added in 7.21.3)

       --retry <num>
              If a transient error is returned when  curl  tries  to  perform  a
              transfer,  it  will  retry  this number of times before giving up.
              Setting the number to 0 makes curl do no  retries  (which  is  the
              default).  Transient  error  means  either:  a timeout, an FTP 4xx
              response code or an HTTP 5xx response code.

              When curl is about to retry a transfer, it  will  first  wait  one
              second  and  then  for  all forthcoming retries it will double the
              waiting time until it reaches 10 minutes which then  will  be  the
              delay between the rest of the retries.  By using --retry-delay you
              disable this exponential backoff algorithm. See also  --retry-max-
              time  to  limit  the  total  time  allowed  for retries. (Added in
              7.12.3)

              If this option is used multiple times, the last occurrence  decide
              the amount.

       --retry-delay <seconds>
              Make  curl  sleep  this  amount  of  time before each retry when a
              transfer has failed with a transient error (it changes the default
              backoff  time  algorithm  between  retries).  This  option is only
              interesting if --retry is also used. Setting this  delay  to  zero
              will make curl use the default backoff time.  (Added in 7.12.3)

              If  this option is used multiple times, the last occurrence deter‐
              mines the amount.

       --retry-max-time <seconds>
              The retry timer  is  reset  before  the  first  transfer  attempt.
              Retries  will  be done as usual (see --retry) as long as the timer
              hasn't reached this given limit. Notice that if the  timer  hasn't
              reached  the limit, the request will be made and while performing,
              it may take longer than this given time period. To limit a  single
              request´s  maximum  time,  use -m, --max-time.  Set this option to
              zero to not timeout retries. (Added in 7.12.3)

              If this option is used multiple times, the last occurrence  deter‐
              mines the amount.

       -s, --silent
              Silent or quiet mode. Don't show progress meter or error messages.
              Makes Curl mute.

       -S, --show-error
              When used with -s it makes curl show an error message if it fails.
       --ssl  (FTP, POP3, IMAP, SMTP) Try to use  SSL/TLS  for  the  connection.
              Reverts  to  a non-secure connection if the server doesn't support
              SSL/TLS.  See also --ftp-ssl-control and --ssl-reqd for  different
              levels of encryption required. (Added in 7.20.0)

              This  option  was  formerly  known as --ftp-ssl (Added in 7.11.0).
              That option name can still be used but will be removed in a future
              version.

       --ssl-reqd
              (FTP,  POP3, IMAP, SMTP) Require SSL/TLS for the connection.  Ter‐
              minates the connection if  the  server  doesn't  support  SSL/TLS.
              (Added in 7.20.0)

              This  option  was  formerly  known  as  --ftp-ssl-reqd  (added  in
              7.15.5). That option name can still be used but will be removed in
              a future version.

       --ssl-allow-beast
              (SSL) This option tells curl to not work around a security flaw in
              the SSL3 and TLS1.0 protocols known  as  BEAST.   If  this  option
              isn't  used,  the  SSL  layer  may use work-arounds known to cause
              interoperability problems with  some  older  SSL  implementations.
              WARNING:  this  option loosens the SSL security, and by using this
              flag you ask for exactly that.  (Added in 7.25.0)

       --socks4 <host[:port]>
              Use the specified SOCKS4 proxy. If the port number is  not  speci‐
              fied, it is assumed at port 1080. (Added in 7.15.2)

              This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they are
              mutually exclusive.

              Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can  specify  a
              socks4 proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks4:// protocol prefix.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --socks4a <host[:port]>
              Use  the specified SOCKS4a proxy. If the port number is not speci‐
              fied, it is assumed at port 1080. (Added in 7.18.0)

              This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they are
              mutually exclusive.

              Since  7.21.7,  this option is superfluous since you can specify a
              socks4a proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks4a:// protocol prefix.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --socks5-hostname <host[:port]>
              Use the specified SOCKS5 proxy (and let the proxy resolve the host
              name).  If the port number is not specified, it is assumed at port
              1080. (Added in 7.18.0)

              This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they are
              mutually exclusive.

              Since  7.21.7,  this option is superfluous since you can specify a
              socks5 hostname proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks5h:// protocol
              prefix.

              If  this  option is used several times, the last one will be used.
              (This option was previously wrongly documented and used as --socks
              without the number appended.)

       --socks5 <host[:port]>
              Use  the  specified  SOCKS5  proxy  -  but  resolve  the host name
              locally. If the port number is not specified,  it  is  assumed  at
              port 1080.

              This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they are
              mutually exclusive.

              Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can  specify  a
              socks5 proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks5:// protocol prefix.

              If  this  option is used several times, the last one will be used.
              (This option was previously wrongly documented and used as --socks
              without the number appended.)

              This option (as well as --socks4) does not work with IPV6, FTPS or
              LDAP.

       --socks5-gssapi-service <servicename>
              The default service name for a socks server  is  rcmd/server-fqdn.
              This option allows you to change it.

              Examples:  --socks5 proxy-name --socks5-gssapi-service sockd would
              use sockd/proxy-name --socks5  proxy-name  --socks5-gssapi-service
              sockd/real-name  would  use  sockd/real-name  for  cases where the
              proxy-name does not match the principal name.  (Added in 7.19.4).

       --socks5-gssapi-nec
              As part of the gssapi negotiation a protection mode is negotiated.
              RFC  1961  says in section 4.3/4.4 it should be protected, but the
              NEC reference implementation does not.  The  option  --socks5-gss‐
              api-nec  allows  the  unprotected  exchange of the protection mode
              negotiation. (Added in 7.19.4).

       --stderr <file>
              Redirect all writes to stderr to the specified  file  instead.  If
              the file name is a plain '-', it is instead written to stdout.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -t, --telnet-option <OPT=val>
              Pass options to the telnet protocol. Supported options are:

              TTYPE=<term> Sets the terminal type.

              XDISPLOC=<X display> Sets the X display location.

              NEW_ENV=<var,val> Sets an environment variable.

       -T, --upload-file <file>
              This  transfers  the  specified  local  file to the remote URL. If
              there is no file part in the specified URL, Curl will  append  the
              local  file  name. NOTE that you must use a trailing / on the last
              directory to really prove to Curl that there is no  file  name  or
              curl  will  think that your last directory name is the remote file
              name to use. That will most likely cause the upload  operation  to
              fail. If this is used on a HTTP(S) server, the PUT command will be
              used.

              Use the file name "-" (a single dash) to use stdin  instead  of  a
              given  file.  Alternately, the file name "." (a single period) may
              be specified instead of "-" to use stdin in non-blocking  mode  to
              allow reading server output while stdin is being uploaded.

              You can specify one -T for each URL on the command line. Each -T +
              URL pair specifies what to upload and to where. curl also supports
              "globbing"  of the -T argument, meaning that you can upload multi‐
              ple files to a single URL by using the  same  URL  globbing  style
              supported in the URL, like this:

              curl -T "{file1,file2}" http://www.uploadtothissite.com

              or even
              curl -T "img[1-1000].png" ftp://ftp.picturemania.com/upload/

       --tcp-nodelay
              Turn  on  the  TCP_NODELAY option. See the curl_easy_setopt(3) man
              page for details about this option. (Added in 7.11.2)

       --tftp-blksize <value>
              (TFTP) Set TFTP BLKSIZE option (must be >512). This is  the  block
              size that curl will try to use when transferring data to or from a
              TFTP server. By default 512 bytes will be used.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              (Added in 7.20.0)

       --tlsauthtype <authtype>
              Set TLS authentication type. Currently, the only supported  option
              is  "SRP",  for TLS-SRP (RFC 5054). If --tlsuser and --tlspassword
              are specified but --tlsauthtype is not, then this option  defaults
              to "SRP".  (Added in 7.21.4)

       --tlsuser <user>
              Set  username for use with the TLS authentication method specified
              with --tlsauthtype.  Requires  that  --tlspassword  also  be  set.
              (Added in 7.21.4)

       --tlspassword <password>
              Set  password for use with the TLS authentication method specified
              with --tlsauthtype. Requires that --tlsuser also be  set.   (Added
              in 7.21.4)

       --tr-encoding
              (HTTP)  Request  a compressed Transfer-Encoding response using one
              of the algorithms libcurl supports, and uncompress the data  while
              receiving it.

              (Added in 7.21.6)

       --trace <file>
              Enables  a  full  trace  dump  of  all incoming and outgoing data,
              including descriptive information, to the given output  file.  Use
              "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout.

              This  option  overrides previous uses of -v, --verbose or --trace-
              ascii.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --trace-ascii <file>
              Enables a full trace dump  of  all  incoming  and  outgoing  data,
              including  descriptive  information, to the given output file. Use
              "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout.

              This is very similar to --trace, but leaves out the hex  part  and
              only  shows  the  ASCII  part of the dump. It makes smaller output
              that might be easier to read for untrained humans.

              This option overrides previous uses of -v, --verbose or --trace.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --trace-time
              Prepends a time stamp to each trace or verbose line that curl dis‐
              plays.  (Added in 7.14.0)

       -u, --user <user:password>
              Specify  the  user name and password to use for server authentica‐
              tion. Overrides -n, --netrc and --netrc-optional.

              If you just give the user name (without  entering  a  colon)  curl
              will prompt for a password.

              If you use an SSPI-enabled curl binary and do NTLM authentication,
              you can force curl to pick up the user name and password from your
              environment  by simply specifying a single colon with this option:
              "-u :".

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -U, --proxy-user <user:password>
              Specify the user name and password to use  for  proxy  authentica‐
              tion.

              If you use an SSPI-enabled curl binary and do NTLM authentication,
              you can force curl to pick up the user name and password from your
              environment  by simply specifying a single colon with this option:
              "-U :".

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --url <URL>
              Specify a URL to fetch. This option is mostly handy when you  want
              to specify URL(s) in a config file.

              This option may be used any number of times. To control where this
              URL is written, use the -o,  --output  or  the  -O,  --remote-name
              options.

       -v, --verbose
              Makes  the  fetching  more  verbose/talkative.  Mostly  useful for
              debugging. A line starting with '>' means "header  data"  sent  by
              curl,  '<'  means "header data" received by curl that is hidden in
              normal cases, and a line starting with '*' means  additional  info
              provided by curl.

              Note  that  if  you  only  want  HTTP  headers  in the output, -i,
              --include might be the option you're looking for.

              If you think this option still doesn't give  you  enough  details,
              consider using --trace or --trace-ascii instead.

              This option overrides previous uses of --trace-ascii or --trace.

              Use -s, --silent to make curl quiet.

       -w, --write-out <format>
              Defines what to display on stdout after a completed and successful
              operation. The format is a string  that  may  contain  plain  text
              mixed with any number of variables. The string can be specified as
              "string", to get read  from  a  particular  file  you  specify  it
              "@filename"  and  to  tell  curl to read the format from stdin you
              write "@-".

              The variables present in the output format will be substituted  by
              the  value  or  text that curl thinks fit, as described below. All
              variables are specified as %{variable_name} and to output a normal
              % you just write them as %%. You can output a newline by using \n,
              a carriage return with \r and a tab space with \t.

              NOTE: The %-symbol is a special symbol in  the  win32-environment,
              where all occurrences of % must be doubled when using this option.

              The variables available at this point are:

              url_effective  The  URL  that was fetched last. This is most mean‐
                             ingful if you've  told  curl  to  follow  location:
                             headers.

              filename_effective
                             The ultimate filename that curl writes out to. This
                             is only meaningful if curl is told to  write  to  a
                             file  with  the  --remote-name  or --output option.
                             It's most useful in combination with the  --remote-
                             header-name option. (Added in 7.25.1)

              http_code      The  numerical  response code that was found in the
                             last  retrieved  HTTP(S)  or  FTP(s)  transfer.  In
                             7.18.2  the  alias  response_code was added to show
                             the same info.

              http_connect   The numerical code  that  was  found  in  the  last
                             response  (from a proxy) to a curl CONNECT request.
                             (Added in 7.12.4)

              time_total     The total time, in seconds, that the full operation
                             lasted. The time will be displayed with millisecond
                             resolution.

              time_namelookup
                             The time, in seconds, it took from the start  until
                             the name resolving was completed.

              time_connect   The  time, in seconds, it took from the start until
                             the TCP connect to the remote host (or  proxy)  was
                             completed.

              time_appconnect
                             The  time, in seconds, it took from the start until
                             the SSL/SSH/etc  connect/handshake  to  the  remote
                             host was completed. (Added in 7.19.0)

              time_pretransfer
                             The  time, in seconds, it took from the start until
                             the file transfer was just  about  to  begin.  This
                             includes all pre-transfer commands and negotiations
                             that are specific  to  the  particular  protocol(s)
                             involved.

              time_redirect  The  time,  in seconds, it took for all redirection
                             steps include name lookup, connect, pretransfer and
                             transfer  before the final transaction was started.
                             time_redirect shows the complete execution time for
                             multiple redirections. (Added in 7.12.3)

              time_starttransfer
                             The  time, in seconds, it took from the start until
                             the first byte was just about  to  be  transferred.
                             This  includes  time_pretransfer  and also the time
                             the server needed to calculate the result.

              size_download  The total amount of bytes that were downloaded.

              size_upload    The total amount of bytes that were uploaded.

              size_header    The total amount of bytes of the  downloaded  head‐
                             ers.

              size_request   The  total  amount  of  bytes that were sent in the
                             HTTP request.

              speed_download The average download speed that curl  measured  for
                             the complete download. Bytes per second.

              speed_upload   The average upload speed that curl measured for the
                             complete upload. Bytes per second.

              content_type   The Content-Type  of  the  requested  document,  if
                             there was any.

              num_connects   Number of new connects made in the recent transfer.
                             (Added in 7.12.3)
              num_redirects  Number of  redirects  that  were  followed  in  the
                             request. (Added in 7.12.3)

              redirect_url   When  a  HTTP request was made without -L to follow
                             redirects, this variable will show the actual URL a
                             redirect would take you to. (Added in 7.18.2)

              ftp_entry_path The  initial  path libcurl ended up in when logging
                             on to the remote FTP server. (Added in 7.15.4)

              ssl_verify_result
                             The result of the SSL peer certificate verification
                             that  was  requested.  0 means the verification was
                             successful. (Added in 7.19.0)

       If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -x, --proxy <[protocol://][user:password@]proxyhost[:port]>
              Use the specified HTTP proxy. If the port number is not specified,
              it is assumed at port 1080.

              This  option overrides existing environment variables that set the
              proxy to use. If there's an environment variable setting a  proxy,
              you can set proxy to "" to override it.

              All operations that are performed over a HTTP proxy will transpar‐
              ently be converted to HTTP. It means that  certain  protocol  spe‐
              cific  operations  might not be available. This is not the case if
              you can tunnel through the proxy, as one with the -p,  --proxytun‐
              nel option.

              User  and  password that might be provided in the proxy string are
              URL decoded by libcurl. This allows you to pass in special charac‐
              ters such as @ by using %40 or pass in a colon with %3a.

              The  proxy  host  can be specified the exact same way as the proxy
              environment variables, including the protocol prefix (http://) and
              the embedded user + password.

              From  7.21.7, the proxy string may be specified with a protocol://
              prefix to specify  alternative  proxy  protocols.  Use  socks4://,
              socks4a://,  socks5:// or socks5h:// to request the specific SOCKS
              version to be used. No protocol specified, http:// and all  others
              will be treated as HTTP proxies.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -X, --request <command>
              (HTTP) Specifies a custom request method to use when communicating
              with the HTTP server.  The specified request will be used  instead
              of  the  method  otherwise  used (which defaults to GET). Read the
              HTTP 1.1 specification for details and explanations. Common  addi‐
              tional HTTP requests include PUT and DELETE, but related technolo‐
              gies like WebDAV offers PROPFIND, COPY, MOVE and more.

              (FTP) Specifies a custom FTP command to use instead of  LIST  when
              doing file lists with FTP.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.


       --xattr
              When saving output to a file, this option tells curl to store cer‐
              tain file metadata in extened file attributes. Currently, the  URL
              is  stored in the xdg.origin.url attribute and, for HTTP, the con‐
              tent type is stored in the mime_type attribute. If the file system
              does not support extended attributes, a warning is issued.


       -y, --speed-time <time>
              If a download is slower than speed-limit bytes per second during a
              speed-time period, the download gets  aborted.  If  speed-time  is
              used, the default speed-limit will be 1 unless set with -Y.

              This  option controls transfers and thus will not affect slow con‐
              nects etc. If this is a concern for you, try the --connect-timeout
              option.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -Y, --speed-limit <speed>
              If  a  download is slower than this given speed (in bytes per sec‐
              ond) for speed-time seconds it gets  aborted.  speed-time  is  set
              with -y and is 30 if not set.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -z/--time-cond <date expression>|<file>
              (HTTP/FTP)  Request  a  file that has been modified later than the
              given time and date, or one that has  been  modified  before  that
              time. The <date expression> can be all sorts of date strings or if
              it doesn't match any internal ones, it is taken as a filename  and
              tries  to  get  the modification date (mtime) from <file> instead.
              See the curl_getdate(3) man pages for date expression details.

              Start the date expression with a dash (-) to make it request for a
              document that is older than the given date/time, default is a doc‐
              ument that is newer than the specified date/time.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -h, --help
              Usage help.

       -M, --manual
              Manual. Display the huge help text.

       -V, --version
              Displays information about curl and the libcurl version it uses.

              The first line includes the full  version  of  curl,  libcurl  and
              other 3rd party libraries linked with the executable.

              The  second  line  (starts  with "Protocols:") shows all protocols
              that libcurl reports to support.

              The third line (starts with "Features:") shows  specific  features
              libcurl reports to offer. Available features include:

              IPv6   You can use IPv6 with this.

              krb4   Krb4 for FTP is supported.

              SSL    HTTPS and FTPS are supported.

              libz   Automatic  decompression  of  compressed files over HTTP is
                     supported.

              NTLM   NTLM authentication is supported.

              GSS-Negotiate
                     Negotiate authentication and krb5 for FTP is supported.

              Debug  This curl uses a libcurl built  with  Debug.  This  enables
                     more  error-tracking  and  memory  debugging etc. For curl-
                     developers only!

              AsynchDNS
                     This curl uses asynchronous name resolves.

              SPNEGO SPNEGO Negotiate authentication is supported.

              Largefile
                     This curl supports transfers of large files,  files  larger
                     than 2GB.

              IDN    This curl supports IDN - international domain names.

              SSPI   SSPI  is  supported.  If  you use NTLM and set a blank user
                     name, curl will authenticate with  your  current  user  and
                     password.

              TLS-SRP
                     SRP  (Secure  Remote  Password) authentication is supported
                     for TLS.

FILES
       ~/.curlrc
              Default config file, see -K, --config for details.

ENVIRONMENT
       The environment variables can be specified in lower case or  upper  case.
       The  lower  case version has precedence. http_proxy is an exception as it
       is only available in lower case.

       Using an environment variable to set the proxy has  the  same  effect  as
       using the --proxy option.


       http_proxy [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets the proxy server to use for HTTP.

       HTTPS_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets the proxy server to use for HTTPS.

       [url-protocol]_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets  the proxy server to use for [url-protocol], where the proto‐
              col is a protocol that curl supports and as specified  in  a  URL.
              FTP, FTPS, POP3, IMAP, SMTP, LDAP etc.

       ALL_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets the proxy server to use if no protocol-specific proxy is set.

       NO_PROXY <comma-separated list of hosts>
              list  of host names that shouldn't go through any proxy. If set to
              a asterisk '*' only, it matches all hosts.

PROXY PROTOCOL PREFIXES
       Since curl version 7.21.7, the proxy string may be specified with a  pro‐
       tocol:// prefix to specify alternative proxy protocols.

       If  no protocol is specified in the proxy string or if the string doesn't
       match a supported one, the proxy will be treated as a HTTP proxy.

       The supported proxy protocol prefixes are as follows:

       socks4://
              Makes it the equivalent of --socks4

       socks4a://
              Makes it the equivalent of --socks4a

       socks5://
              Makes it the equivalent of --socks5

       socks5h://
              Makes it the equivalent of --socks5-hostname

EXIT CODES
       There are a bunch of different error codes and their corresponding  error
       messages that may appear during bad conditions. At the time of this writ‐
       ing, the exit codes are:

       1      Unsupported protocol. This build of curl has no support  for  this
              protocol.

       2      Failed to initialize.
       3      URL malformed. The syntax was not correct.

       4      A feature or option that was needed to perform the desired request
              was not enabled or was explicitly disabled at build-time. To  make
              curl able to do this, you probably need another build of libcurl!

       5      Couldn't  resolve  proxy.  The  given  proxy  host  could  not  be
              resolved.

       6      Couldn't resolve host. The given remote host was not resolved.

       7      Failed to connect to host.

       8      FTP weird server reply. The server sent data curl couldn't parse.

       9      FTP access denied. The server denied login or denied access to the
              particular  resource  or directory you wanted to reach. Most often
              you tried to change to a  directory  that  doesn't  exist  on  the
              server.

       11     FTP  weird  PASS  reply. Curl couldn't parse the reply sent to the
              PASS request.

       13     FTP weird PASV reply, Curl couldn't parse the reply  sent  to  the
              PASV request.

       14     FTP  weird 227 format. Curl couldn't parse the 227-line the server
              sent.

       15     FTP can't get host. Couldn't resolve the host IP  we  got  in  the
              227-line.

       17     FTP  couldn't  set  binary.  Couldn't  change  transfer  method to
              binary.

       18     Partial file. Only a part of the file was transferred.

       19     FTP couldn't download/access the given file, the RETR (or similar)
              command failed.

       21     FTP quote error. A quote command returned error from the server.

       22     HTTP  page  not  retrieved.  The  requested  url  was not found or
              returned another error with the  HTTP  error  code  being  400  or
              above. This return code only appears if -f, --fail is used.

       23     Write  error.  Curl  couldn't  write data to a local filesystem or
              similar.

       25     FTP couldn't STOR file. The server denied the STOR operation, used
              for FTP uploading.

       26     Read error. Various reading problems.

       27     Out of memory. A memory allocation request failed.

       28     Operation  timeout.  The  specified  time-out  period  was reached
              according to the conditions.

       30     FTP PORT failed. The PORT command failed. Not all FTP servers sup‐
              port the PORT command, try doing a transfer using PASV instead!

       31     FTP  couldn't  use  REST. The REST command failed. This command is
              used for resumed FTP transfers.

       33     HTTP range error. The range "command" didn't work.

       34     HTTP post error. Internal post-request generation error.

       35     SSL connect error. The SSL handshaking failed.

       36     FTP bad download resume.  Couldn't  continue  an  earlier  aborted
              download.

       37     FILE couldn't read file. Failed to open the file. Permissions?

       38     LDAP cannot bind. LDAP bind operation failed.

       39     LDAP search failed.

       41     Function not found. A required LDAP function was not found.

       42     Aborted  by callback. An application told curl to abort the opera‐
              tion.

       43     Internal error. A function was called with a bad parameter.

       45     Interface error. A specified outgoing interface could not be used.

       47     Too many redirects. When following redirects, curl hit the maximum
              amount.

       48     Unknown  option  specified  to  libcurl.  This  indicates that you
              passed a weird option to curl that was passed on  to  libcurl  and
              rejected. Read up in the manual!

       49     Malformed telnet option.

       51     The peer's SSL certificate or SSH MD5 fingerprint was not OK.

       52     The  server  didn't  reply  anything,  which here is considered an
              error.

       53     SSL crypto engine not found.

       54     Cannot set SSL crypto engine as default.

       55     Failed sending network data.

       56     Failure in receiving network data.

       58     Problem with the local certificate.

       59     Couldn't use specified SSL cipher.

       60     Peer certificate cannot be authenticated with  known  CA  certifi‐
              cates.

       61     Unrecognized transfer encoding.

       62     Invalid LDAP URL.

       63     Maximum file size exceeded.

       64     Requested FTP SSL level failed.

       65     Sending the data requires a rewind that failed.

       66     Failed to initialise SSL Engine.

       67     The  user  name,  password,  or  similar was not accepted and curl
              failed to log in.

       68     File not found on TFTP server.

       69     Permission problem on TFTP server.

       70     Out of disk space on TFTP server.

       71     Illegal TFTP operation.

       72     Unknown TFTP transfer ID.

       73     File already exists (TFTP).

       74     No such user (TFTP).
       75     Character conversion failed.

       76     Character conversion functions required.

       77     Problem with reading the SSL CA cert (path? access rights?).

       78     The resource referenced in the URL does not exist.

       79     An unspecified error occurred during the SSH session.

       80     Failed to shut down the SSL connection.

       82     Could not load  CRL  file,  missing  or  wrong  format  (added  in
              7.19.0).

       83     Issuer check failed (added in 7.19.0).

       84     The FTP PRET command failed

       85     RTSP: mismatch of CSeq numbers

       86     RTSP: mismatch of Session Identifiers

       87     unable to parse FTP file list

       88     FTP chunk callback reported error

       XX     More error codes will appear here in future releases. The existing
              ones are meant to never change.

AUTHORS / CONTRIBUTORS
       Daniel Stenberg is the main author, but the whole list of contributors is
       found in the separate THANKS file.

WWW
       http://curl.haxx.se

FTP
       ftp://ftp.sunet.se/pub/www/utilities/curl/

SEE ALSO
       ftp(1), wget(1)



Curl 7.25.0                     16 February 2012                         curl(1)