FTP(1)                    BSD General Commands Manual                   FTP(1)

NAME
     ftp — Internet file transfer program

SYNOPSIS
     ftp [-46pinegvd] [host [port]]
     pftp [-46inegvd] [host [port]]

DESCRIPTION
     Ftp is the user interface to the Internet standard File Transfer Protocol.
     The program allows a user to transfer files to and from a remote network
     site.

     Options may be specified at the command line, or to the command inter‐
     preter.

     -4    Use only IPv4 to contact any host.

     -6    Use IPv6 only.

     -p    Use passive mode for data transfers. Allows use of ftp in environ‐
           ments where a firewall prevents connections from the outside world
           back to the client machine. Requires that the ftp server support the
           PASV command. This is the default if invoked as pftp.

     -i    Turns off interactive prompting during multiple file transfers.

     -n    Restrains ftp from attempting “auto-login” upon initial connection.
           If auto-login is enabled, ftp will check the .netrc (see netrc(5))
           file in the user's home directory for an entry describing an account
           on the remote machine.  If no entry exists, ftp will prompt for the
           remote machine login name (default is the user identity on the local
           machine), and, if necessary, prompt for a password and an account
           with which to login.

     -e    Disables command editing and history support, if it was compiled into
           the ftp executable. Otherwise, does nothing.

     -g    Disables file name globbing.

     -v    Verbose option forces ftp to show all responses from the remote
           server, as well as report on data transfer statistics.

     -d    Enables debugging.

     The client host and an optional port number with which ftp is to communi‐
     cate may be specified on the command line.  If this is done, ftp will imme‐
     diately attempt to establish a connection to an FTP server on that host;
     otherwise, ftp will enter its command interpreter and await instructions
     from the user.  When ftp is awaiting commands from the user the prompt
     ‘ftp>’ is provided to the user.  The following commands are recognized by
     ftp:

     ! [command [args]]
                 Invoke an interactive shell on the local machine.  If there are
                 arguments, the first is taken to be a command to execute
                 directly, with the rest of the arguments as its arguments.

     $ macro-name [args]
                 Execute the macro macro-name that was defined with the macdef
                 command.  Arguments are passed to the macro unglobbed.

     account [passwd]
                 Supply a supplemental password required by a remote system for
                 access to resources once a login has been successfully com‐
                 pleted.  If no argument is included, the user will be prompted
                 for an account password in a non-echoing input mode.

     append local-file [remote-file]
                 Append a local file to a file on the remote machine.  If
                 remote-file is left unspecified, the local file name is used in
                 naming the remote file after being altered by any ntrans or
                 nmap setting.  File transfer uses the current settings for
                 type, format, mode, and structure.

     ascii       Set the file transfer type to network ASCII.  This is the
                 default type.

     bell        Arrange that a bell be sounded after each file transfer command
                 is completed.

     binary      Set the file transfer type to support binary image transfer.

     bye         Terminate the FTP session with the remote server and exit ftp.
                 An end of file will also terminate the session and exit.

     case        Toggle remote computer file name case mapping during mget com‐
                 mands.  When case is on (default is off), remote computer file
                 names with all letters in upper case are written in the local
                 directory with the letters mapped to lower case.

     cd remote-directory
                 Change the working directory on the remote machine to
                 remote-directory.

     cdup        Change the remote machine working directory to the parent of
                 the current remote machine working directory.

     chmod mode file-name
                 Change the permission modes of the file file-name on the remote
                 sytem to mode.

     close       Terminate the FTP session with the remote server, and return to
                 the command interpreter.  Any defined macros are erased.

     cr          Toggle carriage return stripping during ascii type file
                 retrieval.  Records are denoted by a carriage return/linefeed
                 sequence during ascii type file transfer.  When cr is on (the
                 default), carriage returns are stripped from this sequence to
                 conform with the UNIX single linefeed record delimiter.
                 Records on non-UNIX remote systems may contain single line‐
                 feeds; when an ascii type transfer is made, these linefeeds may
                 be distinguished from a record delimiter only when cr is off.

     qc          Toggle the printing of control characters in the output of
                 ASCII type commands.  When this is turned on, control charac‐
                 ters are replaced with a question mark if the output file is
                 the standard output.  This is the default when the standard
                 output is a tty.

     delete remote-file
                 Delete the file remote-file on the remote machine.

     debug [debug-value]
                 Toggle debugging mode.  If an optional debug-value is specified
                 it is used to set the debugging level.  When debugging is on,
                 ftp prints each command sent to the remote machine, preceded by
                 the string ‘-->’

     dir [remote-directory] [local-file]
                 Print a listing of the directory contents in the directory,
                 remote-directory, and, optionally, placing the output in
                 local-file.  If interactive prompting is on, ftp will prompt
                 the user to verify that the last argument is indeed the target
                 local file for receiving dir output.  If no directory is speci‐
                 fied, the current working directory on the remote machine is
                 used.  If no local file is specified, or local-file is -, out‐
                 put comes to the terminal.

     disconnect  A synonym for close.

     form format
                 Set the file transfer form to format.  The default format is
                 “file”.

     get remote-file [local-file]
                 Retrieve the remote-file and store it on the local machine.  If
                 the local file name is not specified, it is given the same name
                 it has on the remote machine, subject to alteration by the cur‐
                 rent case, ntrans, and nmap settings.  The current settings for
                 type, form, mode, and structure are used while transferring the
                 file.

     glob        Toggle filename expansion for mdelete, mget and mput.  If glob‐
                 bing is turned off with glob, the file name arguments are taken
                 literally and not expanded.  Globbing for mput is done as in
                 csh(1).  For mdelete and mget, each remote file name is
                 expanded separately on the remote machine and the lists are not
                 merged.  Expansion of a directory name is likely to be differ‐
                 ent from expansion of the name of an ordinary file: the exact
                 result depends on the foreign operating system and ftp server,
                 and can be previewed by doing ‘mls remote-files -’ Note: mget
                 and mput are not meant to transfer entire directory subtrees of
                 files.  That can be done by transferring a tar(1) archive of
                 the subtree (in binary mode).

     hash        Toggle hash-sign (``#'') printing for each data block trans‐
                 ferred.  The size of a data block is 1024 bytes.

     help [command]
                 Print an informative message about the meaning of command.  If
                 no argument is given, ftp prints a list of the known commands.

     idle [seconds]
                 Set the inactivity timer on the remote server to seconds sec‐
                 onds.  If seconds is omitted, the current inactivity timer is
                 printed.

     ipany       Allow the address resolver to return any address family.

     ipv4        Restrict the address resolver to look only for IPv4 addresses.

     ipv6        Restrict host adressing to IPv6 only.

     lcd [directory]
                 Change the working directory on the local machine.  If no
                 directory is specified, the user's home directory is used.

     ls [remote-directory] [local-file]
                 Print a listing of the contents of a directory on the remote
                 machine.  The listing includes any system-dependent information
                 that the server chooses to include; for example, most UNIX sys‐
                 tems will produce output from the command ‘ls -l’.  (See also
                 nlist.)  If remote-directory is left unspecified, the current
                 working directory is used.  If interactive prompting is on, ftp
                 will prompt the user to verify that the last argument is indeed
                 the target local file for receiving ls output.  If no local
                 file is specified, or if local-file is ‘-’, the output is sent
                 to the terminal.

     macdef macro-name
                 Define a macro.  Subsequent lines are stored as the macro
                 macro-name; a null line (consecutive newline characters in a
                 file or carriage returns from the terminal) terminates macro
                 input mode.  There is a limit of 16 macros and 4096 total char‐
                 acters in all defined macros.  Macros remain defined until a
                 close command is executed.  The macro processor interprets `$'
                 and `\' as special characters.  A `$' followed by a number (or
                 numbers) is replaced by the corresponding argument on the macro
                 invocation command line.  A `$' followed by an `i' signals that
                 macro processor that the executing macro is to be looped.  On
                 the first pass `$i' is replaced by the first argument on the
                 macro invocation command line, on the second pass it is
                 replaced by the second argument, and so on.  A `\' followed by
                 any character is replaced by that character.  Use the `\' to
                 prevent special treatment of the `$'.

     mdelete [remote-files]
                 Delete the remote-files on the remote machine.

     mdir remote-files local-file
                 Like dir, except multiple remote files may be specified.  If
                 interactive prompting is on, ftp will prompt the user to verify
                 that the last argument is indeed the target local file for
                 receiving mdir output.

     mget remote-files
                 Expand the remote-files on the remote machine and do a get for
                 each file name thus produced.  See glob for details on the
                 filename expansion.  Resulting file names will then be pro‐
                 cessed according to case, ntrans, and nmap settings.  Files are
                 transferred into the local working directory, which can be
                 changed with ‘lcd directory’; new local directories can be cre‐
                 ated with ‘! mkdir directory’.

     mkdir directory-name
                 Make a directory on the remote machine.

     mls remote-files local-file
                 Like nlist, except multiple remote files may be specified, and
                 the local-file must be specified.  If interactive prompting is
                 on, ftp will prompt the user to verify that the last argument
                 is indeed the target local file for receiving mls output.

     mode [mode-name]
                 Set the file transfer mode to mode-name.  The default mode is
                 “stream” mode.

     modtime file-name
                 Show the last modification time of the file on the remote
                 machine.

     mput local-files
                 Expand wild cards in the list of local files given as arguments
                 and do a put for each file in the resulting list.  See glob for
                 details of filename expansion.  Resulting file names will then
                 be processed according to ntrans and nmap settings.

     newer file-name [local-file]
                 Get the file only if the modification time of the remote file
                 is more recent that the file on the current system.  If the
                 file does not exist on the current system, the remote file is
                 considered newer.  Otherwise, this command is identical to get.

     nlist [remote-directory] [local-file]
                 Print a  list of the files in a directory on the remote
                 machine.  If remote-directory is left unspecified, the current
                 working directory is used.  If interactive prompting is on, ftp
                 will prompt the user to verify that the last argument is indeed
                 the target local file for receiving nlist output.  If no local
                 file is specified, or if local-file is -, the output is sent to
                 the terminal.

     nmap [inpattern outpattern]
                 Set or unset the filename mapping mechanism.  If no arguments
                 are specified, the filename mapping mechanism is unset.  If
                 arguments are specified, remote filenames are mapped during
                 mput commands and put commands issued without a specified
                 remote target filename.  If arguments are specified, local
                 filenames are mapped during mget commands and get commands
                 issued without a specified local target filename.  This command
                 is useful when connecting to a non-UNIX remote computer with
                 different file naming conventions or practices.  The mapping
                 follows the pattern set by inpattern and outpattern.
                 [Inpattern] is a template for incoming filenames (which may
                 have already been processed according to the ntrans and case
                 settings).  Variable templating is accomplished by including
                 the sequences `$1', `$2', ..., `$9' in inpattern.  Use `\' to
                 prevent this special treatment of the `$' character.  All other
                 characters are treated literally, and are used to determine the
                 nmap [inpattern] variable values.  For example, given inpattern
                 $1.$2 and the remote file name "mydata.data", $1 would have the
                 value "mydata", and $2 would have the value "data".  The
                 outpattern determines the resulting mapped filename.  The
                 sequences `$1', `$2', ...., `$9' are replaced by any value
                 resulting from the inpattern template.  The sequence `$0' is
                 replace by the original filename.  Additionally, the sequence
                 ‘[seq1, seq2]’ is replaced by [seq1] if seq1 is not a null
                 string; otherwise it is replaced by seq2.  For example, the
                 command

                       nmap $1.$2.$3 [$1,$2].[$2,file]

                 would yield the output filename "myfile.data" for input file‐
                 names "myfile.data" and "myfile.data.old", "myfile.file" for
                 the input filename "myfile", and "myfile.myfile" for the input
                 filename ".myfile".  Spaces may be included in outpattern, as
                 in the example: `nmap $1 sed "s/  *$//" > $1' .  Use the `\'
                 character to prevent special treatment of the `$','[','[', and
                 `,' characters.

     ntrans [inchars [outchars]]
                 Set or unset the filename character translation mechanism.  If
                 no arguments are specified, the filename character translation
                 mechanism is unset.  If arguments are specified, characters in
                 remote filenames are translated during mput commands and put
                 commands issued without a specified remote target filename.  If
                 arguments are specified, characters in local filenames are
                 translated during mget commands and get commands issued without
                 a specified local target filename.  This command is useful when
                 connecting to a non-UNIX remote computer with different file
                 naming conventions or practices.  Characters in a filename
                 matching a character in inchars are replaced with the corre‐
                 sponding character in outchars.  If the character's position in
                 inchars is longer than the length of outchars, the character is
                 deleted from the file name.

     open host [port]
                 Establish a connection to the specified host FTP server.  An
                 optional port number may be supplied, in which case, ftp will
                 attempt to contact an FTP server at that port.  If the
                 auto-login option is on (default), ftp will also attempt to
                 automatically log the user in to the FTP server (see below).

     prompt      Toggle interactive prompting.  Interactive prompting occurs
                 during multiple file transfers to allow the user to selectively
                 retrieve or store files.  If prompting is turned off (default
                 is on), any mget or mput will transfer all files, and any
                 mdelete will delete all files.

     proxy ftp-command
                 Execute an ftp command on a secondary control connection.  This
                 command allows simultaneous connection to two remote ftp
                 servers for transferring files between the two servers.  The
                 first proxy command should be an open, to establish the sec‐
                 ondary control connection.  Enter the command "proxy ?" to see
                 other ftp commands executable on the secondary connection.  The
                 following commands behave differently when prefaced by proxy:
                 open will not define new macros during the auto-login process,
                 close will not erase existing macro definitions, get and mget
                 transfer files from the host on the primary control connection
                 to the host on the secondary control connection, and put, mput,
                 and append transfer files from the host on the secondary con‐
                 trol connection to the host on the primary control connection.
                 Third party file transfers depend upon support of the ftp pro‐
                 tocol PASV command by the server on the secondary control con‐
                 nection.

     put local-file [remote-file]
                 Store a local file on the remote machine.  If remote-file is
                 left unspecified, the local file name is used after processing
                 according to any ntrans or nmap settings in naming the remote
                 file.  File transfer uses the current settings for type,
                 format, mode, and structure.

     pwd         Print the name of the current working directory on the remote
                 machine.

     quit        A synonym for bye.

     quote arg1 arg2 ...
                 The arguments specified are sent, verbatim, to the remote FTP
                 server.

     recv remote-file [local-file]
                 A synonym for get.

     reget remote-file [local-file]
                 Reget acts like get, except that if local-file exists and is
                 smaller than remote-file, local-file is presumed to be a par‐
                 tially transferred copy of remote-file and the transfer is con‐
                 tinued from the apparent point of failure.  If local-file does
                 not exist ftp won't fetch the file.  This command is useful
                 when transferring very large files over networks that are prone
                 to dropping connections.

     remotehelp [command-name]
                 Request help from the remote FTP server.  If a command-name is
                 specified it is supplied to the server as well.

     remotestatus [file-name]
                 With no arguments, show status of remote machine.  If file-name
                 is specified, show status of file-name on remote machine.

     rename [from] [to]
                 Rename the file from on the remote machine, to the file to.

     reset       Clear reply queue.  This command re-synchronizes command/reply
                 sequencing with the remote ftp server.  Resynchronization may
                 be necessary following a violation of the ftp protocol by the
                 remote server.

     restart marker
                 Restart the immediately following get or put at the indicated
                 marker.  On UNIX systems, marker is usually a byte offset into
                 the file.

     rmdir directory-name
                 Delete a directory on the remote machine.

     runique     Toggle storing of files on the local system with unique file‐
                 names.  If a file already exists with a name equal to the tar‐
                 get local filename for a get or mget command, a ".1" is
                 appended to the name.  If the resulting name matches another
                 existing file, a ".2" is appended to the original name.  If
                 this process continues up to ".99", an error message is
                 printed, and the transfer does not take place.  The generated
                 unique filename will be reported.  Note that runique will not
                 affect local files generated from a shell command (see below).
                 The default value is off.

     send local-file [remote-file]
                 A synonym for put.

     sendport    Toggle the use of PORT commands.  By default, ftp will attempt
                 to use a PORT command when establishing a connection for each
                 data transfer.  The use of PORT commands can prevent delays
                 when performing multiple file transfers.  If the PORT command
                 fails, ftp will use the default data port.  When the use of
                 PORT commands is disabled, no attempt will be made to use PORT
                 commands for each data transfer.  This is useful for certain
                 FTP implementations which do ignore PORT commands but, incor‐
                 rectly, indicate they've been accepted.

     site arg1 arg2 ...
                 The arguments specified are sent, verbatim, to the remote FTP
                 server as a SITE command.

     size file-name
                 Return size of file-name on remote machine.

     status      Show the current status of ftp.

     struct [struct-name]
                 Set the file transfer structure to struct-name.  By default
                 “stream” structure is used.

     sunique     Toggle storing of files on remote machine under unique file
                 names.  Remote ftp server must support ftp protocol STOU com‐
                 mand for successful completion.  The remote server will report
                 unique name.  Default value is off.

     system      Show the type of operating system running on the remote
                 machine.

     tenex       Set the file transfer type to that needed to talk to TENEX
                 machines.

     trace       Toggle packet tracing.

     type [type-name]
                 Set the file transfer type to type-name.  If no type is speci‐
                 fied, the current type is printed.  The default type is network
                 ASCII.

     umask [newmask]
                 Set the default umask on the remote server to newmask.  If
                 newmask is omitted, the current umask is printed.

     user user-name [password] [account]
                 Identify yourself to the remote FTP server.  If the password is
                 not specified and the server requires it, ftp will prompt the
                 user for it (after disabling local echo).  If an account field
                 is not specified, and the FTP server requires it, the user will
                 be prompted for it.  If an account field is specified, an
                 account command will be relayed to the remote server after the
                 login sequence is completed if the remote server did not
                 require it for logging in.  Unless ftp is invoked with “auto-
                 login” disabled, this process is done automatically on initial
                 connection to the FTP server.

     verbose     Toggle verbose mode.  In verbose mode, all responses from the
                 FTP server are displayed to the user.  In addition, if verbose
                 is on, when a file transfer completes, statistics regarding the
                 efficiency of the transfer are reported.  By default, verbose
                 is on.

     ? [command]
                 A synonym for help.

     Command arguments which have embedded spaces may be quoted with quote `"'
     marks.

ABORTING A FILE TRANSFER
     To abort a file transfer, use the terminal interrupt key (usually Ctrl-C).
     Sending transfers will be immediately halted.  Receiving transfers will be
     halted by sending a ftp protocol ABOR command to the remote server, and
     discarding any further data received.  The speed at which this is accom‐
     plished depends upon the remote server's support for ABOR processing.  If
     the remote server does not support the ABOR command, an ‘ftp>’ prompt will
     not appear until the remote server has completed sending the requested
     file.

     The terminal interrupt key sequence will be ignored when ftp has completed
     any local processing and is awaiting a reply from the remote server.  A
     long delay in this mode may result from the ABOR processing described
     above, or from unexpected behavior by the remote server, including viola‐
     tions of the ftp protocol.  If the delay results from unexpected remote
     server behavior, the local ftp program must be killed by hand.

FILE NAMING CONVENTIONS
     Files specified as arguments to ftp commands are processed according to the
     following rules.

     1.   If the file name ‘-’ is specified, the stdin (for reading) or stdout
          (for writing) is used.

     2.   If the first character of the file name is ‘|’, the remainder of the
          argument is interpreted as a shell command.  Ftp then forks a shell,
          using popen(3) with the argument supplied, and reads (writes) from the
          stdout (stdin).  If the shell command includes spaces, the argument
          must be quoted; e.g.  “" ls -lt"”.  A particularly useful example of
          this mechanism is: “dir more”.

     3.   Failing the above checks, if ``globbing'' is enabled, local file names
          are expanded according to the rules used in the csh(1); c.f. the glob
          command.  If the ftp command expects a single local file (.e.g.  put),
          only the first filename generated by the "globbing" operation is used.

     4.   For mget commands and get commands with unspecified local file names,
          the local filename is the remote filename, which may be altered by a
          case, ntrans, or nmap setting.  The resulting filename may then be
          altered if runique is on.

     5.   For mput commands and put commands with unspecified remote file names,
          the remote filename is the local filename, which may be altered by a
          ntrans or nmap setting.  The resulting filename may then be altered by
          the remote server if sunique is on.

FILE TRANSFER PARAMETERS
     The FTP specification specifies many parameters which may affect a file
     transfer.  The type may be one of “ascii”, “image” (binary), “ebcdic”, and
     “local byte size” (for PDP-10's and PDP-20's mostly).  Ftp supports the
     ascii and image types of file transfer, plus local byte size 8 for tenex
     mode transfers.

     Ftp supports only the default values for the remaining file transfer param‐
     eters: mode, form, and struct.

ENVIRONMENT
     Ftp utilizes the following environment variables.

     HOME        For default location of a .netrc file, if one exists.

     SHELL       For default shell.

SEE ALSO
     ftpd(8), netrc(5), RFC 959

HISTORY
     The ftp command appeared in 4.2BSD.

BUGS
     Correct execution of many commands depends upon proper behavior by the
     remote server.

     An error in the treatment of carriage returns in the 4.2BSD ascii-mode
     transfer code has been corrected.  This correction may result in incorrect
     transfers of binary files to and from 4.2BSD servers using the ascii type.
     Avoid this problem by using the binary image type.

Linux NetKit (0.17)             August 15, 1999            Linux NetKit (0.17)