LS(1)                             User Commands                            LS(1)



NAME
       ls - list directory contents

SYNOPSIS
       ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...

DESCRIPTION
       List  information  about  the  FILEs  (the current directory by default).
       Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor --sort is specified.

       Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

       -a, --all
              do not ignore entries starting with .

       -A, --almost-all
              do not list implied . and ..

       --author
              with -l, print the author of each file

       -b, --escape
              print C-style escapes for nongraphic characters

       --block-size=SIZE
              scale sizes by SIZE before printing them.  E.g.,  `--block-size=M'
              prints sizes in units of 1,048,576 bytes.  See SIZE format below.

       -B, --ignore-backups
              do not list implied entries ending with ~

       -c     with  -lt:  sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of
              file status information) with -l: show ctime and sort by name oth‐
              erwise: sort by ctime, newest first

       -C     list entries by columns

       --color[=WHEN]
              colorize  the output.  WHEN defaults to `always' or can be `never'
              or `auto'.  More info below

       -d, --directory
              list directory entries instead of contents, and do not dereference
              symbolic links

       -D, --dired
              generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode

       -f     do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls --color

       -F, --classify
              append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries

       --file-type
              likewise, except do not append `*'

       --format=WORD
              across  -x,  commas  -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1,
              verbose -l, vertical -C

       --full-time
              like -l --time-style=full-iso
       -g     like -l, but do not list owner

       --group-directories-first
              group directories before files.

              augment with a --sort option, but any use of --sort=none (-U) dis‐
              ables grouping

       -G, --no-group
              in a long listing, don't print group names

       -h, --human-readable
              with -l, print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

       --si   likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024

       -H, --dereference-command-line
              follow symbolic links listed on the command line

       --dereference-command-line-symlink-to-dir
              follow each command line symbolic link that points to a directory

       --hide=PATTERN
              do  not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN (overridden by
              -a or -A)

       --indicator-style=WORD
              append indicator with style WORD to entry names:  none  (default),
              slash (-p), file-type (--file-type), classify (-F)

       -i, --inode
              print the index number of each file

       -I, --ignore=PATTERN
              do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

       -k     like --block-size=1K

       -l     use a long listing format

       -L, --dereference
              when  showing  file information for a symbolic link, show informa‐
              tion for the file the link references rather  than  for  the  link
              itself

       -m     fill width with a comma separated list of entries

       -n, --numeric-uid-gid
              like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs

       -N, --literal
              print  raw  entry  names (don't treat e.g. control characters spe‐
              cially)

       -o     like -l, but do not list group information

       -p, --indicator-style=slash
              append / indicator to directories

       -q, --hide-control-chars
              print ? instead of non graphic characters

       --show-control-chars
              show non graphic characters as-is (default unless program is  `ls'
              and output is a terminal)

       -Q, --quote-name
              enclose entry names in double quotes
       --quoting-style=WORD
              use  quoting  style  WORD for entry names: literal, locale, shell,
              shell-always, c, escape

       -r, --reverse
              reverse order while sorting

       -R, --recursive
              list subdirectories recursively

       -s, --size
              print the allocated size of each file, in blocks

       -S     sort by file size

       --sort=WORD
              sort by WORD instead of name: none -U, extension -X, size -S, time
              -t, version -v

       --time=WORD
              with -l, show time as WORD instead of modification time: atime -u,
              access -u, use -u, ctime -c, or status -c; use specified  time  as
              sort key if --sort=time

       --time-style=STYLE
              with  -l,  show  times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso, iso,
              locale, +FORMAT.  FORMAT is interpreted like `date'; if FORMAT  is
              FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2,  FORMAT1  applies to non-recent files and
              FORMAT2 to recent files; if STYLE is prefixed with `posix-', STYLE
              takes effect only outside the POSIX locale

       -t     sort by modification time, newest first

       -T, --tabsize=COLS
              assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

       -u     with -lt: sort by, and show, access time with -l: show access time
              and sort by name otherwise: sort by access time

       -U     do not sort; list entries in directory order

       -v     natural sort of (version) numbers within text

       -w, --width=COLS
              assume screen width instead of current value

       -x     list entries by lines instead of by columns

       -X     sort alphabetically by entry extension

       -Z, --context
              print any SELinux security context of each file

       -1     list one file per line

       --help display this help and exit

       --version
              output version information and exit

       SIZE may be (or may be an integer optionally followed by) one of  follow‐
       ing:  KB  1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, and so on for G, T, P,
       E, Z, Y.

       Using color to distinguish file types is disabled  both  by  default  and
       with  --color=never.   With  --color=auto, ls emits color codes only when
       standard output is connected to a terminal.   The  LS_COLORS  environment
       variable can change the settings.  Use the dircolors command to set it.
   Exit status:
       0      if OK,

       1      if minor problems (e.g., cannot access subdirectory),

       2      if serious trouble (e.g., cannot access command-line argument).

AUTHOR
       Written by Richard M. Stallman and David MacKenzie.

REPORTING BUGS
       Report ls bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
       GNU coreutils home page: <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/>
       General help using GNU software: <http://www.gnu.org/gethelp/>
       Report ls translation bugs to <http://translationproject.org/team/>

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright  © 2011 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+: GNU GPL
       version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
       This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.  There
       is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

SEE ALSO
       The  full documentation for ls is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If the
       info and ls programs are properly installed at your site, the command

              info coreutils 'ls invocation'

       should give you access to the complete manual.



GNU coreutils 8.12.197-032bb     September 2011                            LS(1)