PS(1)                             User Commands                            PS(1)



NAME
       ps - report a snapshot of the current processes.

SYNOPSIS
       ps [options]

DESCRIPTION
       ps displays information about a selection of the active processes.  If
       you want a repetitive update of the selection and the displayed
       information, use top(1) instead.

       This version of ps accepts several kinds of options:

       1   UNIX options, which may be grouped and must be preceded by a dash.
       2   BSD options, which may be grouped and must not be used with a dash.
       3   GNU long options, which are preceded by two dashes.

       Options of different types may be freely mixed, but conflicts can appear.
       There are some synonymous options, which are functionally identical, due
       to the many standards and ps implementations that this ps is compatible
       with.

       Note that "ps -aux" is distinct from "ps aux".  The POSIX and UNIX
       standards require that "ps -aux" print all processes owned by a user
       named "x", as well as printing all processes that would be selected by
       the -a option.  If the user named "x" does not exist, this ps may
       interpret the command as "ps aux" instead and print a warning.  This
       behavior is intended to aid in transitioning old scripts and habits.  It
       is fragile, subject to change, and thus should not be relied upon.

       By default, ps selects all processes with the same effective user ID
       (euid=EUID) as the current user and associated with the same terminal as
       the invoker.  It displays the process ID (pid=PID), the terminal
       associated with the process (tname=TTY), the cumulated CPU time in
       [DD-]hh:mm:ss format (time=TIME), and the executable name (ucmd=CMD).
       Output is unsorted by default.

       The use of BSD-style options will add process state (stat=STAT) to the
       default display and show the command args (args=COMMAND) instead of the
       executable name.  You can override this with the PS_FORMAT environment
       variable. The use of BSD-style options will also change the process
       selection to include processes on other terminals (TTYs) that are owned
       by you; alternately, this may be described as setting the selection to be
       the set of all processes filtered to exclude processes owned by other
       users or not on a terminal.  These effects are not considered when
       options are described as being "identical" below, so -M will be
       considered identical to Z and so on.

       Except as described below, process selection options are additive.  The
       default selection is discarded, and then the selected processes are added
       to the set of processes to be displayed.  A process will thus be shown if
       it meets any of the given selection criteria.

EXAMPLES
       To see every process on the system using standard syntax:
          ps -e
          ps -ef
          ps -eF
          ps -ely

       To see every process on the system using BSD syntax:
          ps ax
          ps axu

       To print a process tree:
          ps -ejH
          ps axjf

       To get info about threads:
          ps -eLf
          ps axms

       To get security info:
          ps -eo euser,ruser,suser,fuser,f,comm,label
          ps axZ
          ps -eM

       To see every process running as root (real & effective ID) in user
       format:
          ps -U root -u root u

       To see every process with a user-defined format:
          ps -eo pid,tid,class,rtprio,ni,pri,psr,pcpu,stat,wchan:14,comm
          ps axo stat,euid,ruid,tty,tpgid,sess,pgrp,ppid,pid,pcpu,comm
          ps -Ao pid,tt,user,fname,tmout,f,wchan

       Print only the process IDs of syslogd:
          ps -C syslogd -o pid=

       Print only the name of PID 42:
          ps -p 42 -o comm=

SIMPLE PROCESS SELECTION
       a      Lift the BSD-style "only yourself" restriction, which is imposed
              upon the set of all processes when some BSD-style (without "-")
              options are used or when the ps personality setting is BSD-like.
              The set of processes selected in this manner is in addition to the
              set of processes selected by other means.  An alternate
              description is that this option causes ps to list all processes
              with a terminal (tty), or to list all processes when used together
              with the x option.

       -A     Select all processes.  Identical to -e.

       -a     Select all processes except both session leaders (see getsid(2))
              and processes not associated with a terminal.

       -d     Select all processes except session leaders.

       --deselect
              Select all processes except those that fulfill the specified
              conditions (negates the selection).  Identical to -N.

       -e     Select all processes.  Identical to -A.

       g      Really all, even session leaders.  This flag is obsolete and may
              be discontinued in a future release.  It is normally implied by
              the a flag, and is only useful when operating in the sunos4
              personality.

       -N     Select all processes except those that fulfill the specified
              conditions (negates the selection).  Identical to --deselect.

       T      Select all processes associated with this terminal.  Identical to
              the t option without any argument.

       r      Restrict the selection to only running processes.

       x      Lift the BSD-style "must have a tty" restriction, which is imposed
              upon the set of all processes when some BSD-style (without "-")
              options are used or when the ps personality setting is BSD-like.
              The set of processes selected in this manner is in addition to the
              set of processes selected by other means.  An alternate
              description is that this option causes ps to list all processes
              owned by you (same EUID as ps), or to list all processes when used
              together with the a option.

PROCESS SELECTION BY LIST
       These options accept a single argument in the form of a blank-separated
       or comma-separated list.  They can be used multiple times.  For example:
       ps -p "1 2" -p 3,4

       -123   Identical to --pid 123.

       123    Identical to --pid 123.

       -C cmdlist
              Select by command name.  This selects the processes whose
              executable name is given in cmdlist.

       -G grplist
              Select by real group ID (RGID) or name.  This selects the
              processes whose real group name or ID is in the grplist list.  The
              real group ID identifies the group of the user who created the
              process, see getgid(2).

       -g grplist
              Select by session OR by effective group name.  Selection by
              session is specified by many standards, but selection by effective
              group is the logical behavior that several other operating systems
              use.  This ps will select by session when the list is completely
              numeric (as sessionsare).  Group ID numbers will work only when
              some group names are also specified.  See the -s and --group
              options.

       --Group grplist
              Select by real group ID (RGID) or name.  Identical to -G.

       --group grplist
              Select by effective group ID (EGID) or name.  This selects the
              processes whose effective group name or ID is in grouplist.  The
              effective group ID describes the group whose file access
              permissions are used by the process (see getegid(2)).  The -g
              option is often an alternative to --group.

       p pidlist
              Select by process ID.  Identical to -p and --pid.

       -p pidlist
              Select by PID.  This selects the processes whose process ID
              numbers appear in pidlist.  Identical to p and --pid.

       --pid pidlist
              Select by process ID.  Identical to -p and p.

       --ppid pidlist
              Select by parent process ID.  This selects the processes with a
              parent process ID in pidlist.  That is, it selects processes that
              are children of those listed in pidlist.

       -s sesslist
              Select by session ID.  This selects the processes with a session
              ID specified in sesslist.

       --sid sesslist
              Select by session ID.  Identical to -s.
       t ttylist
              Select by tty.  Nearly identical to -t and --tty, but can also be
              used with an empty ttylist to indicate the terminal associated
              with ps.  Using the T option is considered cleaner than using t
              with an empty ttylist.

       -t ttylist
              Select by tty.  This selects the processes associated with the
              terminals given in ttylist.  Terminals (ttys, or screens for text
              output) can be specified in several forms: /dev/ttyS1, ttyS1, S1.
              A plain "-" may be used to select processes not attached to any
              terminal.

       --tty ttylist
              Select by terminal.  Identical to -t and t.

       U userlist
              Select by effective user ID (EUID) or name.  This selects the
              processes whose effective user name or ID is in userlist.  The
              effective user ID describes the user whose file access permissions
              are used by the process (see geteuid(2)).  Identical to -u and
              --user.

       -U userlist
              Select by real user ID (RUID) or name.  It selects the processes
              whose real user name or ID is in the userlist list.  The real user
              ID identifies the user who created the process, see getuid(2).

       -u userlist
              Select by effective user ID (EUID) or name.  This selects the
              processes whose effective user name or ID is in userlist.

              The effective user ID describes the user whose file access
              permissions are used by the process (see geteuid(2)).  Identical
              to U and --user.

       --User userlist
              Select by real user ID (RUID) or name.  Identical to -U.

       --user userlist
              Select by effective user ID (EUID) or name.  Identical to -u and
              U.

OUTPUT FORMAT CONTROL
       These options are used to choose the information displayed by ps.  The
       output may differ by personality.

       -c     Show different scheduler information for the -l option.

       --context
              Display security context format (for SE Linux).

       -f     Do full-format listing. This option can be combined with many
              other UNIX-style options to add additional columns.  It also
              causes the command arguments to be printed.  When used with -L,
              the NLWP (number of threads) and LWP (thread ID) columns will be
              added.  See the c option, the format keyword args, and the format
              keyword comm.

       -F     Extra full format.  See the -f option, which -F implies.

       --format format
              user-defined format.  Identical to -o and o.

       j      BSD job control format.

       -j     Jobs format.
       l      Display BSD long format.

       -l     Long format.  The -y option is often useful with this.

       -M     Add a column of security data.  Identical to Z (for SE Linux).

       O format
              is preloaded o (overloaded).  The BSD O option can act like -O
              (user-defined output format with some common fields predefined) or
              can be used to specify sort order.  Heuristics are used to
              determine the behavior of this option.  To ensure that the desired
              behavior is obtained (sorting or formatting), specify the option
              in some other way (e.g.  with -O or --sort).  When used as a
              formatting option, it is identical to -O, with the BSD
              personality.

       -O format
              Like -o, but preloaded with some default columns.  Identical to
              -o pid,format,state,tname,time,command or -o pid,format,tname,
              time,cmd, see -o below.

       o format
              Specify user-defined format.  Identical to -o and --format.

       -o format
              User-defined format.  format is a single argument in the form of a
              blank-separated or comma-separated list, which offers a way to
              specify individual output columns.  The recognized keywords are
              described in the STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS section below.
              Headers may be renamed (ps -o pid,ruser=RealUser -o comm=Command)
              as desired.  If all column headers are empty (ps -o pid= -o comm=)
              then the header line will not be output.  Column width will
              increase as needed for wide headers; this may be used to widen up
              columns such as WCHAN (ps -o pid,wchan=WIDE-WCHAN-COLUMN -o comm).
              Explicit width control (ps opid,wchan:42,cmd) is offered too.  The
              behavior of ps -o pid=X,comm=Y varies with personality; output may
              be one column named "X,comm=Y" or two columns named "X" and "Y".
              Use multiple -o options when in doubt.  Use the PS_FORMAT
              environment variable to specify a default as desired; DefSysV and
              DefBSD are macros that may be used to choose the default UNIX or
              BSD columns.

       s      Display signal format.

       u      Display user-oriented format.

       v      Display virtual memory format.

       X      Register format.

       -y     Do not show flags; show rss in place of addr.  This option can
              only be used with -l.

       Z      Add a column of security data.  Identical to -M (for SE Linux).

OUTPUT MODIFIERS
       c      Show the true command name.  This is derived from the name of the
              executable file, rather than from the argv value.  Command
              arguments and any modifications to them are thus not shown.  This
              option effectively turns the args format keyword into the comm
              format keyword; it is useful with the -f format option and with
              the various BSD-style format options, which all normally display
              the command arguments.  See the -f option, the format keyword
              args, and the format keyword comm.

       --cols n
              Set screen width.
       --columns n
              Set screen width.

       --cumulative
              Include some dead child process data (as a sum with the parent).

       e      Show the environment after the command.

       f      ASCII art process hierarchy (forest).

       --forest
              ASCII art process tree.

       h      No header.  (or, one header per screen in the BSD personality).
              The h option is problematic.  Standard BSD ps uses this option to
              print a header on each page of output, but older Linux ps uses
              this option to totally disable the header.  This version of ps
              follows the Linux usage of not printing the header unless the BSD
              personality has been selected, in which case it prints a header on
              each page of output.  Regardless of the current personality, you
              can use the long options --headers and --no-headers to enable
              printing headers each page or disable headers entirely,
              respectively.

       -H     Show process hierarchy (forest).

       --headers
              Repeat header lines, one per page of output.

       k spec Specify sorting order.  Sorting syntax is
              [+|-]key[,[+|-]key[,...]].  Choose a multi-letter key from the
              STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS section.  The "+" is optional since
              default direction is increasing numerical or lexicographic order.
              Identical to --sort.

                      Examples:
                      ps jaxkuid,-ppid,+pid
                      ps axk comm o comm,args
                      ps kstart_time -ef

       --lines n
              Set screen height.

       -n namelist
              Set namelist file.  Identical to N.  The namelist file is needed
              for a proper WCHAN display, and must match the current Linux
              kernel exactly for correct output.  Without this option, the
              default search path for the namelist is:

                      $PS_SYSMAP
                      $PS_SYSTEM_MAP
                      /proc/*/wchan
                      /boot/System.map-$(uname -r)
                      /boot/System.map
                      /lib/modules/$(uname -r)/System.map
                      /usr/src/linux/System.map
                      /System.map

       n      Numeric output for WCHAN and USER (including all types of UID and
              GID).

       N namelist
              Specify namelist file.  Identical to -n, see -n above.

       --no-headers
              Print no header line at all.  --no-heading is an alias for this
              option.
       O order
              Sorting order (overloaded).  The BSD O option can act like -O
              (user-defined output format with some common fields predefined) or
              can be used to specify sort order.  Heuristics are used to
              determine the behavior of this option.  To ensure that the desired
              behavior is obtained (sorting or formatting), specify the option
              in some other way (e.g.  with -O or --sort).

              For sorting, obsolete BSD O option syntax is
              O[+|-]k1[,[+|-]k2[,...]].  It orders the processes listing
              according to the multilevel sort specified by the sequence of
              one-letter short keys k1,k2, ...  described in the OBSOLETE SORT
              KEYS section below.  The "+" is currently optional, merely
              re-iterating the default direction on a key, but may help to
              distinguish an O sort from an O format.  The "-" reverses
              direction only on the key it precedes.

       --rows n
              Set screen height.

       S      Sum up some information, such as CPU usage, from dead child
              processes into their parent.  This is useful for examining a
              system where a parent process repeatedly forks off short-lived
              children to do work.

       --sort spec
              Specify sorting order.  Sorting syntax is
              [+|-]key[,[+|-]key[,...]].  Choose a multi-letter key from the
              STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS section.  The "+" is optional since
              default direction is increasing numerical or lexicographic order.
              Identical to k.  For example: ps jax --sort=uid,-ppid,+pid

       w      Wide output.  Use this option twice for unlimited width.

       -w     Wide output.  Use this option twice for unlimited width.

       --width n
              Set screen width.

THREAD DISPLAY
       H      Show threads as if they were processes.

       -L     Show threads, possibly with LWP and NLWP columns.

       m      Show threads after processes.

       -m     Show threads after processes.

       -T     Show threads, possibly with SPID column.

OTHER INFORMATION
       --help section
              Print a help message.  The section argument can be one of simple,
              list, output, threads, misc or all.  The argument can be shortened
              to one of the underlined letters as in: s|l|o|t|m|a.

       --info Print debugging info.

       L      List all format specifiers.

       V      Print the procps-ng version.

       -V     Print the procps-ng version.

       --version
              Print the procps-ng version.

NOTES
       This ps works by reading the virtual files in /proc.  This ps does not
       need to be setuid kmem or have any privileges to run.  Do not give this
       ps any special permissions.

       This ps needs access to namelist data for proper WCHAN display.  For
       kernels prior to 2.6, the System.map file must be installed.

       CPU usage is currently expressed as the percentage of time spent running
       during the entire lifetime of a process.  This is not ideal, and it does
       not conform to the standards that ps otherwise conforms to.  CPU usage is
       unlikely to add up to exactly 100%.

       The SIZE and RSS fields don't count some parts of a process including the
       page tables, kernel stack, struct thread_info, and struct task_struct.
       This is usually at least 20 KiB of memory that is always resident.  SIZE
       is the virtual size of the process (code+data+stack).

       Processes marked <defunct> are dead processes (so-called "zombies") that
       remain because their parent has not destroyed them properly.  These
       processes will be destroyed by init(8) if the parent process exits.

       If the length of the username is greater than the length of the display
       column, the numeric user ID is displayed instead.

PROCESS FLAGS
       The sum of these values is displayed in the "F" column, which is provided
       by the flags output specifier:

               1    forked but didn't exec
               4    used super-user privileges

PROCESS STATE CODES
       Here are the different values that the s, stat and state output
       specifiers (header "STAT" or "S") will display to describe the state of a
       process:

               D    uninterruptible sleep (usually IO)
               R    running or runnable (on run queue)
               S    interruptible sleep (waiting for an event to complete)
               T    stopped, either by a job control signal or because it is
                    being traced
               W    paging (not valid since the 2.6.xx kernel)
               X    dead (should never be seen)
               Z    defunct ("zombie") process, terminated but not reaped by its
                    parent

       For BSD formats and when the stat keyword is used, additional characters
       may be displayed:

               <    high-priority (not nice to other users)
               N    low-priority (nice to other users)
               L    has pages locked into memory (for real-time and custom IO)
               s    is a session leader
               l    is multi-threaded (using CLONE_THREAD, like NPTL pthreads
                    do)
               +    is in the foreground process group

OBSOLETE SORT KEYS
       These keys are used by the BSD O option (when it is used for sorting).
       The GNU --sort option doesn't use these keys, but the specifiers
       described below in the STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS section.  Note that the
       values used in sorting are the internal values ps uses and not the
       "cooked" values used in some of the output format fields (e.g.  sorting
       on tty will sort into device number, not according to the terminal name
       displayed).  Pipe ps output into the sort(1) command if you want to sort
       the cooked values.

       l l lw(3i).  KEY  LONG DESCRIPTION c    cmd  simple name of executable
       C    pcpu cpu utilization f    flags     flags as in long format F field
       g    pgrp process group ID G    tpgid     controlling tty process group
       ID j    cutime    cumulative user time J    cstime    cumulative system
       time k    utime     user time m    min_flt   number of minor page faults
       M    maj_flt   number of major page faults n    cmin_flt  cumulative
       minor page faults N    cmaj_flt  cumulative major page faults
       o    session   session ID p    pid  process ID P    ppid parent process
       ID r    rss  resident set size R    resident  resident pages
       s    size memory size in kilobytes S    share     amount of shared pages
       t    tty  the device number of the controlling tty
       T    start_time     time process was started U    uid  user ID number
       u    user user name v    vsize     total VM size in KiB
       y    priority  kernel scheduling priority

AIX FORMAT DESCRIPTORS
       This ps supports AIX format descriptors, which work somewhat like the
       formatting codes of printf(1) and printf(3).  For example, the normal
       default output can be produced with this: ps -eo "%p %y %x %c".  The
       NORMAL codes are described in the next section.

       l l l.  CODE NORMAL    HEADER %C   pcpu %CPU %G   group     GROUP
       %P   ppid PPID %U   user USER %a   args COMMAND %c   comm COMMAND
       %g   rgroup    RGROUP %n   nice NI %p   pid  PID %r   pgid PGID
       %t   etime     ELAPSED %u   ruser     RUSER %x   time TIME %y   tty  TTY
       %z   vsz  VSZ

STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS
       Here are the different keywords that may be used to control the output
       format (e.g. with option -o) or to sort the selected processes with the
       GNU-style --sort option.

       For example: ps -eo pid,user,args --sort user

       This version of ps tries to recognize most of the keywords used in other
       implementations of ps.

       The following user-defined format specifiers may contain spaces:
       args, cmd, comm, command, fname, ucmd, ucomm, lstart, bsdstart, start.

       Some keywords may not be available for sorting.


       expand; lB1 lB1 lBw(51n) lB1 l1  l.  CODE HEADER    DESCRIPTION

       %cpu %CPU T{ cpu utilization of the process in "##.#" format.  Currently,
       it is the CPU time used divided by the time the process has been running
       (cputime/realtime ratio), expressed as a percentage.  It will not add up
       to 100% unless you are lucky.  (alias pcpu).  T}

       %mem %MEM T{ ratio of the process's resident set size  to the physical
       memory on the machine, expressed as a percentage.  (alias pmem).  T}

       args COMMAND   T{ command with all its arguments as a string.
       Modifications to the arguments may be shown.  The output in this column
       may contain spaces.  A process marked <defunct> is partly dead, waiting
       to be fully destroyed by its parent.  Sometimes the process args will be
       unavailable; when this happens, ps will instead print the executable name
       in brackets.  (alias cmd, command).  See also the comm format keyword,
       the -f option, and the c option.
       When specified last, this column will extend to the edge of the display.
       If ps can not determine display width, as when output is redirected
       (piped) into a file or another command, the output width is undefined (it
       may be 80, unlimited, determined by the TERM variable, and so on).  The
       COLUMNS environment variable or --cols option may be used to exactly
       determine the width in this case.  The w or -w option may be also be used
       to adjust width.  T}

       blocked   BLOCKED   T{ mask of the blocked signals, see signal(7).
       According to the width of the field, a 32 or 64-bit mask in hexadecimal
       format is displayed.  (alias sig_block, sigmask).  T}

       bsdstart  START     T{ time the command started.  If the process was
       started less than 24 hours ago, the output format is " HH:MM", else it is
       " Mmm:SS" (where Mmm is the three letters of the month).  See also
       lstart, start, start_time, and stime.  T}

       bsdtime   TIME T{ accumulated cpu time, user + system.  The display
       format is usually "MMM:SS", but can be shifted to the right if the
       process used more than 999 minutes of cpu time.  T}

       c    C    T{ processor utilization. Currently, this is the integer value
       of the percent usage over the lifetime of the process.  (see %cpu).  T}

       caught    CAUGHT    T{ mask of the caught signals, see signal(7).
       According to the width of the field, a 32 or 64 bits mask in hexadecimal
       format is displayed.  (alias sig_catch, sigcatch).  T}

       cgroup    CGROUP    T{ display control groups to which the process
       belongs.  T}

       class     CLS  T{ scheduling class of the process.  (alias policy, cls).
       Field's possible values are:

         -    not reported
         TS   SCHED_OTHER
         FF   SCHED_FIFO
         RR   SCHED_RR
         B    SCHED_BATCH
         ISO  SCHED_ISO
         IDL  SCHED_IDLE
         ?    unknown value T}

         cls  CLS  T{ scheduling class of the process.  (alias policy, cls).
         Field's possible values are:

         -    not reported
         TS   SCHED_OTHER
         FF   SCHED_FIFO
         RR   SCHED_RR
         B    SCHED_BATCH
         ISO  SCHED_ISO
         IDL  SCHED_IDLE
         ?    unknown value T}

         cmd  CMD  T{ see args.  (alias args, command).  T}

         comm COMMAND   T{ command name (only the executable name).
         Modifications to the command name will not be shown.  A process marked
         <defunct> is partly dead, waiting to be fully destroyed by its parent.
         The output in this column may contain spaces.  (alias ucmd, ucomm).
         See also the args format keyword, the -f option, and the c option.
         When specified last, this column will extend to the edge of the
         display.  If ps can not determine display width, as when output is
         redirected (piped) into a file or another command, the output width is
         undefined (it may be 80, unlimited, determined by the TERM variable,
         and so on).  The COLUMNS environment variable or --cols option may be
         used to exactly determine the width in this case.  The w or -w option
         may be also be used to adjust width.  T}

         command   COMMAND   T{ See args.  (alias args, command).  T}

         cp   CP   T{ per-mill (tenths of a percent) CPU usage.  (see %cpu).  T}

         cputime   TIME T{ cumulative CPU time, "[DD-]hh:mm:ss" format.  (alias
         time).  T}

         egid EGID T{ effective group ID number of the process as a decimal
         integer.  (alias gid).  T}

         egroup    EGROUP    T{ effective group ID of the process.  This will be
         the textual group ID, if it can be obtained and the field width
         permits, or a decimal representation otherwise.  (alias group).  T}

         eip  EIP  T{ instruction pointer.  T}

         esp  ESP  T{ stack pointer.  T}

         etime     ELAPSED   T{ elapsed time since the process was started, in
         the form [[DD-]hh:]mm:ss.  T}

         etimes    ELAPSED   T{ elapsed time since the process was started, in
         seconds.  T}

         euid EUID T{ effective user ID (alias uid).  T}

         euser     EUSER     T{ effective user name.  This will be the textual
         user ID, if it can be obtained and the field width permits, or a
         decimal representation otherwise.  The n option can be used to force
         the decimal representation.  (alias uname, user).  T}

         f    F    T{ flags associated with the process, see the PROCESS FLAGS
         section.  (alias flag, flags).  T}

         fgid FGID T{ filesystem access group ID.  (alias fsgid).  T}

         fgroup    FGROUP    T{ filesystem access group ID.  This will be the
         textual group ID, if it can be obtained and the field width permits, or
         a decimal representation otherwise.  (alias fsgroup).  T}

         flag F    T{ see f.  (alias f, flags).  T}

         flags     F    T{ see f.  (alias f, flag).  T}

         fname     COMMAND   T{ first 8 bytes of the base name of the process's
         executable file.  The output in this column may contain spaces.  T}

         fuid FUID T{ filesystem access user ID.  (alias fsuid).  T}

         fuser     FUSER     T{ filesystem access user ID.  This will be the
         textual user ID, if it can be obtained and the field width permits, or
         a decimal representation otherwise.  T}

         gid  GID  T{ see egid.  (alias egid).  T}

         group     GROUP     T{ see egroup.  (alias egroup).  T}

         ignored   IGNORED   T{ mask of the ignored signals, see signal(7).
         According to the width of the field, a 32 or 64 bits mask in
         hexadecimal format is displayed.  (alias sig_ignore, sigignore).  T}

         label     LABEL     T{ security label, most commonly used for SE Linux
         context data.  This is for the Mandatory Access Control ("MAC") found
         on high-security systems.  T}

         lstart    STARTED   T{ time the command started.  See also
         bsdstart, start, start_time, and stime.  T}

         lwp  LWP  T{ light weight process (thread) ID of the dispatchable
         entity (alias spid, tid).  See tid for additional information.  T}

         maj_flt   MAJFLT    T{ The number of major page faults that have
         occurred with this process.  T}

         min_flt   MINFLT    T{ The number of minor page faults that have
         occurred with this process.  T}

         ni   NI   T{ nice value. This ranges from 19 (nicest) to -20 (not nice
         to others), see nice(1).  (alias nice).  T}

         nice NI   T{ see ni.(alias ni).  T}

         nlwp NLWP T{ number of lwps (threads) in the process.  (alias thcount).
         T}
         nwchan    WCHAN     T{ address of the kernel function where the process
         is sleeping (use wchan if you want the kernel function name).  Running
         tasks will display a dash ('-') in this column.  T}

         pcpu %CPU T{ see %cpu.  (alias %cpu).  T}

         pending   PENDING   T{ mask of the pending signals. See signal(7).
         Signals pending on the process are distinct from signals pending on
         individual threads.  Use the m option or the -m option to see both.
         According to the width of the field, a 32 or 64 bits mask in
         hexadecimal format is displayed.  (alias sig).  T}

         pgid PGID T{ process group ID or, equivalently, the process ID of the
         process group leader.  (alias pgrp).  T}

         pgrp PGRP T{ see pgid.  (alias pgid).  T}

         pid  PID  T{ a number representing the process ID (alias tgid).  T}

         pmem %MEM T{ see %mem.  (alias %mem).  T}

         policy    POL  T{ scheduling class of the process.  (alias class, cls).
         Possible values are:

         -    not reported
         TS   SCHED_OTHER
         FF   SCHED_FIFO
         RR   SCHED_RR
         B    SCHED_BATCH
         ISO  SCHED_ISO
         IDL  SCHED_IDLE
         ?    unknown value T}

         ppid PPID T{ parent process ID.  T}

         pri  PRI  T{ priority of the process.  Higher number means lower
         priority.  T}

         psr  PSR  T{ processor that process is currently assigned to.  T}

         rgid RGID T{ real group ID.  T}

         rgroup    RGROUP    T{ real group name.  This will be the textual group
         ID, if it can be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal
         representation otherwise.  T}

         rss  RSS  T{ resident set size, the non-swapped physical memory that a
         task has used (inkiloBytes).  (alias rssize, rsz).  T}

         rssize    RSS  T{ see rss.  (alias rss, rsz).  T}

         rsz  RSZ  T{ see rss.  (alias rss, rssize).  T}

         rtprio    RTPRIO    T{ realtime priority.  T}

         ruid RUID T{ real user ID.  T}

         ruser     RUSER     T{ real user ID.  This will be the textual user ID,
         if it can be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal
         representation otherwise.  T}

         s    S    T{ minimal state display (one character).  See section
         PROCESS STATE CODES for the different values.  See also stat if you
         want additional information displayed.  (alias state).  T}

         sched     SCH  T{ scheduling policy of the process.  The policies
         SCHED_OTHER (SCHED_NORMAL), SCHED_FIFO, SCHED_RR, SCHED_BATCH,
         SCHED_ISO, and SCHED_IDLE are respectively displayed as 0, 1, 2, 3, 4,
         and 5.  T}
         sess SESS T{ session ID or, equivalently, the process ID of the session
         leader.  (alias session, sid).  T}

         sgi_p     P    T{ processor that the process is currently executing on.
         Displays "*" if the process is not currently running or runnable.  T}

         sgid SGID T{ saved group ID.  (alias svgid).  T}

         sgroup    SGROUP    T{ saved group name.  This will be the textual
         group ID, if it can be obtained and the field width permits, or a
         decimal representation otherwise.  T}

         sid  SID  T{ see sess.  (alias sess, session).  T}

         sig  PENDING   T{ see pending.  (alias pending, sig_pend).  T}

         sigcatch  CAUGHT    T{ see caught.  (alias caught, sig_catch).  T}

         sigignore IGNORED   T{ see ignored.  (alias ignored, sig_ignore).  T}

         sigmask   BLOCKED   T{ see blocked.  (alias blocked, sig_block).  T}

         size SIZE T{ approximate amount of swap space that would be required if
         the process were to dirty all writable pages and then be swapped out.
         This number is very rough!  T}

         spid SPID T{ see lwp.  (alias lwp, tid).  T}

         stackp    STACKP    T{ address of the bottom (start) of stack for the
         process.  T}

         start     STARTED   T{ time the command started.  If the process was
         started less than 24 hours ago, the output format is "HH:MM:SS", else
         it is "  Mmm dd" (where Mmm is a three-letter month name).  See also
         lstart, bsdstart, start_time, and stime.  T}

         start_time     START     T{ starting time or date of the process.  Only
         the year will be displayed if the process was not started the same year
         ps was invoked, or "MmmDD" if it was not started the same day, or
         "HH:MM" otherwise.  See also bsdstart, start, lstart, and stime.  T}

         stat STAT T{ multi-character process state.  See section PROCESS STATE
         CODES for the different values meaning.  See also s and state if you
         just want the first character displayed.  T}

         state     S    T{ see s. (alias s).  T}

         suid SUID T{ saved user ID.  (alias svuid).  T}

         supgid    SUPGID    T{ group ids of supplementary groups, if any.  See
         getgroups(2).  T}

         supgrp    SUPGRP    T{ group names of supplementary groups, if any.
         See getgroups(2).  T}

         suser     SUSER     T{ saved user name.  This will be the textual user
         ID, if it can be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal
         representation otherwise.  (alias svuser).  T}

         svgid     SVGID     T{ see sgid.  (alias sgid).  T}

         svuid     SVUID     T{ see suid.  (alias suid).  T}

         sz   SZ   T{ size in physical pages of the core image of the process.
         This includes text, data, and stack space.  Device mappings are
         currently excluded; this is subject to change.  See vsz and rss.  T}

         tgid TGID T{ a number representing the thread group to which a task
         belongs (alias pid).  It is the process ID of the thread group leader.
         T}

         thcount   THCNT     T{ see nlwp.  (alias nlwp).  number of kernel
         threads owned by the process.  T}

         tid  TID  T{ the unique number representing a dispatacable entity
         (alias lwp, spid).  This value may also appear as: a process ID (pid);
         a process group ID (pgrp); a session ID for the session leader (sid); a
         thread group ID for the thread group leader (tgid); and a tty process
         group ID for the process group leader (tpgid).  T}

         time TIME T{ cumulative CPU time, "[DD-]HH:MM:SS" format.  (alias
         cputime).  T}

         tname     TTY  T{ controlling tty (terminal).  (alias tt, tty).  T}

         tpgid     TPGID     T{ ID of the foreground process group on the tty
         (terminal) that the process is connected to, or -1 if the process is
         not connected to a tty.  T}

         tt   TT   T{ controlling tty (terminal).  (alias tname, tty).  T}

         tty  TT   T{ controlling tty (terminal).  (alias tname, tt).  T}

         ucmd CMD  T{ see comm.  (alias comm, ucomm).  T}

         ucomm     COMMAND   T{ see comm.  (alias comm, ucmd).  T}

         uid  UID  T{ see euid.  (alias euid).  T}

         uname     USER T{ see euser.  (alias euser, user).  T}

         user USER T{ see euser.  (alias euser, uname).  T}

         vsize     VSZ  T{ see vsz.  (alias vsz).  T}

         vsz  VSZ  T{ virtual memory size of the process in KiB (1024-byte
         units).  Device mappings are currently excluded; this is subject to
         change.  (alias vsize).  T}

         wchan     WCHAN     T{ name of the kernel function in which the process
         is sleeping, a "-" if the process is running, or a "*" if the process
         is multi-threaded and ps is not displaying threads.  T}


ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       The following environment variables could affect ps:

       COLUMNS
          Override default display width.

       LINES
          Override default display height.

       PS_PERSONALITY
          Set to one of posix, old, linux, bsd, sun, digital...  (see section
          PERSONALITY below).

       CMD_ENV
          Set to one of posix, old, linux, bsd, sun, digital...  (see section
          PERSONALITY below).

       I_WANT_A_BROKEN_PS
          Force obsolete command line interpretation.

       LC_TIME
          Date format.

       PS_COLORS
          Not currently supported.
       PS_FORMAT
          Default output format override. You may set this to a format string of
          the type used for the -o option.  The DefSysV and DefBSD values are
          particularly useful.

       PS_SYSMAP
          Default namelist (System.map) location.

       PS_SYSTEM_MAP
          Default namelist (System.map) location.

       POSIXLY_CORRECT
          Don't find excuses to ignore bad "features".

       POSIX2
          When set to "on", acts as POSIXLY_CORRECT.

       UNIX95
          Don't find excuses to ignore bad "features".

       _XPG
          Cancel CMD_ENV=irix non-standard behavior.

       In general, it is a bad idea to set these variables.  The one exception
       is CMD_ENV or PS_PERSONALITY, which could be set to Linux for normal
       systems.  Without that setting, ps follows the useless and bad parts of
       the Unix98 standard.

PERSONALITY
       l    l.  390  like the OS/390 OpenEdition ps aix  like AIX ps bsd  like
       FreeBSD ps (totally non-standard) compaq    like Digital Unix ps
       debian    like the old Debian ps digital   like Tru64 (was Digital Unix,
       was OSF/1) ps gnu  like the old Debian ps hp   like HP-UX ps hpux like
       HP-UX ps irix like Irix ps linux     ***** recommended ***** old  like
       the original Linux ps (totally non-standard) os390     like OS/390 Open
       Edition ps posix     standard s390 like OS/390 Open Edition ps sco  like
       SCO ps sgi  like Irix ps solaris2  like Solaris 2+ (SunOS 5) ps
       sunos4    like SunOS 4 (Solaris 1) ps (totally non-standard)
       svr4 standard sysv standard tru64     like Tru64 (was Digital Unix, was
       OSF/1) ps unix standard unix95    standard unix98    standard

SEE ALSO
       pgrep(1), pstree(1), top(1), proc(5).

STANDARDS
       This ps conforms to:

       1   Version 2 of the Single Unix Specification
       2   The Open Group Technical Standard Base Specifications, Issue 6
       3   IEEE Std 1003.1, 2004 Edition
       4   X/Open System Interfaces Extension [UP XSI]
       5   ISO/IEC 9945:2003

AUTHOR
       ps was originally written by Branko Lankester ⟨lankeste@fwi.uva.nl⟩.
       Michael K. Johnson ⟨johnsonm@redhat.com⟩ re-wrote it significantly to use
       the proc filesystem, changing a few things in the process.  Michael
       Shields ⟨mjshield@nyx.cs.du.edu⟩ added the pid-list feature.  Charles
       Blake ⟨cblake@bbn.com⟩ added multi-level sorting, the dirent-style
       library, the device name-to-number mmaped database, the approximate
       binary search directly on System.map, and many code and documentation
       cleanups.  David Mossberger-Tang wrote the generic BFD support for psup‐
       date.  Albert Cahalan ⟨albert@users.sf.net⟩ rewrote ps for full Unix98
       and BSD support, along with some ugly hacks for obsolete and foreign syn‐
       tax.

       Please send bug reports to ⟨procps@freelists.org⟩.  No subscription is
       required or suggested.



procps-ng                         December 2011                            PS(1)