PYTHON(1)                                                              PYTHON(1)



NAME
       python  -  an  interpreted, interactive, object-oriented programming lan‐
       guage

SYNOPSIS
       python [ -B ] [ -d ] [ -E ] [ -h ] [ -i ] [ -m module-name ]
              [ -O ] [ -OO ] [ -R ] [ -Q argument ] [ -s ] [ -S ] [ -t ] [ -u ]
              [ -v ] [ -V ] [ -W argument ] [ -x ] [ -3 ] [ -?  ]
              [ -c command | script | - ] [ arguments ]

DESCRIPTION
       Python is an interpreted, interactive, object-oriented  programming  lan‐
       guage  that  combines  remarkable  power  with very clear syntax.  For an
       introduction to programming in Python you  are  referred  to  the  Python
       Tutorial.   The  Python Library Reference documents built-in and standard
       types, constants, functions and modules.  Finally, the  Python  Reference
       Manual  describes  the syntax and semantics of the core language in (per‐
       haps too) much detail.  (These documents may be located via the  INTERNET
       RESOURCES below; they may be installed on your system as well.)

       Python's  basic  power can be extended with your own modules written in C
       or C++.  On most systems such modules may be dynamically loaded.   Python
       is  also  adaptable  as  an extension language for existing applications.
       See the internal documentation for hints.

       Documentation for installed Python modules and packages can be viewed  by
       running the pydoc program.

COMMAND LINE OPTIONS
       -B     Don't write .py[co] files on import. See also PYTHONDONTWRITEBYTE‐
              CODE.

       -c command
              Specify the command to execute (see next  section).   This  termi‐
              nates  the  option list (following options are passed as arguments
              to the command).

       -d     Turn on parser debugging output (for wizards  only,  depending  on
              compilation options).

       -E     Ignore  environment  variables like PYTHONPATH and PYTHONHOME that
              modify the behavior of the interpreter.

       -h ,  -? ,  --help
              Prints the usage for the interpreter executable and exits.

       -i     When a script is passed as first argument  or  the  -c  option  is
              used,  enter  interactive  mode  after executing the script or the
              command.  It does not read the $PYTHONSTARTUP file.  This  can  be
              useful  to inspect global variables or a stack trace when a script
              raises an exception.

       -m module-name
              Searches sys.path for the named module and runs the  corresponding
              .py file as a script.

       -O     Turn  on basic optimizations.  This changes the filename extension
              for compiled (bytecode) files from .pyc  to  .pyo.   Given  twice,
              causes docstrings to be discarded.

       -OO    Discard docstrings in addition to the -O optimizations.
       -R     Turn  on  "hash  randomization", so that the hash() values of str,
              bytes and datetime objects  are  "salted"  with  an  unpredictable
              pseudo-random  value.   Although  they  remain  constant within an
              individual  Python  process,  they  are  not  predictable  between
              repeated invocations of Python.

              This is intended to provide protection against a denial of service
              caused by carefully-chosen inputs that exploit the worst case per‐
              formance   of   a   dict  construction,  O(n^2)  complexity.   See
              http://www.ocert.org/advisories/ocert-2011-003.html for details.

       -Q argument
              Division control; see PEP 238.  The argument must be one of  "old"
              (the  default, int/int and long/long return an int or long), "new"
              (new division semantics, i.e.  int/int  and  long/long  returns  a
              float),  "warn" (old division semantics with a warning for int/int
              and long/long), or "warnall" (old division semantics with a  warn‐
              ing  for  all  use  of the division operator).  For a use of "war‐
              nall", see the Tools/scripts/fixdiv.py script.

       -s     Don't add user site directory to sys.path.

       -S     Disable the import of  the  module  site  and  the  site-dependent
              manipulations of sys.path that it entails.

       -t     Issue  a  warning  when  a  source  file mixes tabs and spaces for
              indentation in a way that makes it depend on the worth  of  a  tab
              expressed  in  spaces.   Issue  an  error when the option is given
              twice.

       -u     Force stdin, stdout and stderr to be totally unbuffered.  On  sys‐
              tems where it matters, also put stdin, stdout and stderr in binary
              mode.  Note that there  is  internal  buffering  in  xreadlines(),
              readlines()  and  file-object  iterators ("for line in sys.stdin")
              which is not influenced by this option.  To work around this,  you
              will want to use "sys.stdin.readline()" inside a "while 1:" loop.

       -v     Print  a  message  each  time a module is initialized, showing the
              place (filename or built-in module) from which it is loaded.  When
              given  twice,  print  a  message for each file that is checked for
              when searching for a module.  Also provides information on  module
              cleanup at exit.

       -V ,  --version
              Prints the Python version number of the executable and exits.

       -W argument
              Warning  control.   Python  sometimes  prints  warning  message to
              sys.stderr.  A typical warning message  has  the  following  form:
              file:line: category: message.  By default, each warning is printed
              once for each source line where it occurs.  This  option  controls
              how often warnings are printed.  Multiple -W options may be given;
              when a warning matches more than one option, the  action  for  the
              last matching option is performed.  Invalid -W options are ignored
              (a warning message is printed about invalid options when the first
              warning is issued).  Warnings can also be controlled from within a
              Python program using the warnings module.

              The simplest form of argument  is  one  of  the  following  action
              strings (or a unique abbreviation): ignore to ignore all warnings;
              default to explicitly request the default behavior (printing  each
              warning once per source line); all to print a warning each time it
              occurs (this may generate many messages if a warning is  triggered
              repeatedly  for the same source line, such as inside a loop); mod‐
              ule to print each warning only the first time it  occurs  in  each
              module;  once  to print each warning only the first time it occurs
              in the program; or error to raise an exception instead of printing
              a warning message.

              The  full form of argument is action:message:category:module:line.
              Here, action is as explained above but only  applies  to  messages
              that  match  the remaining fields.  Empty fields match all values;
              trailing empty fields may be omitted.  The message  field  matches
              the  start  of  the  warning  message printed; this match is case-
              insensitive.  The category field  matches  the  warning  category.
              This must be a class name; the match test whether the actual warn‐
              ing category of the message is a subclass of the specified warning
              category.   The  full  class name must be given.  The module field
              matches the (fully-qualified) module name; this match is case-sen‐
              sitive.   The  line  field  matches  the  line  number, where zero
              matches all line numbers and is thus equivalent to an omitted line
              number.

       -x     Skip  the  first  line  of the source.  This is intended for a DOS
              specific hack only.  Warning: the line numbers in  error  messages
              will be off by one!

       -3     Warn about Python 3.x incompatibilities that 2to3 cannot trivially
              fix.

INTERPRETER INTERFACE
       The interpreter interface resembles that of the UNIX shell:  when  called
       with  standard  input  connected to a tty device, it prompts for commands
       and executes them until an EOF is read; when  called  with  a  file  name
       argument or with a file as standard input, it reads and executes a script
       from that file; when called with  -c  command,  it  executes  the  Python
       statement(s)  given as command.  Here command may contain multiple state‐
       ments separated by newlines.  Leading whitespace is significant in Python
       statements!   In  non-interactive mode, the entire input is parsed before
       it is executed.

       If available, the script name and  additional  arguments  thereafter  are
       passed  to the script in the Python variable sys.argv, which is a list of
       strings (you must first import sys to be  able  to  access  it).   If  no
       script  name  is  given,  sys.argv[0]  is an empty string; if -c is used,
       sys.argv[0] contains the string '-c'.  Note that options  interpreted  by
       the Python interpreter itself are not placed in sys.argv.

       In  interactive  mode,  the  primary  prompt  is `>>>'; the second prompt
       (which appears when a command is not complete) is `...'.  The prompts can
       be  changed  by  assignment to sys.ps1 or sys.ps2.  The interpreter quits
       when it reads an EOF at a prompt.  When an unhandled exception occurs,  a
       stack trace is printed and control returns to the primary prompt; in non-
       interactive mode, the interpreter exits after printing the  stack  trace.
       The  interrupt  signal raises the KeyboardInterrupt exception; other UNIX
       signals are not caught (except that  SIGPIPE  is  sometimes  ignored,  in
       favor of the IOError exception).  Error messages are written to stderr.

FILES AND DIRECTORIES
       These  are  subject to difference depending on local installation conven‐
       tions; ${prefix} and ${exec_prefix} are installation-dependent and should
       be  interpreted  as  for  GNU  software; they may be the same.  On Debian
       GNU/{Hurd,Linux} the default for both is /usr.

       ${exec_prefix}/bin/python
              Recommended location of the interpreter.

       ${prefix}/lib/python<version>
       ${exec_prefix}/lib/python<version>
              Recommended locations of the directories containing  the  standard
              modules.
       ${prefix}/include/python<version>
       ${exec_prefix}/include/python<version>
              Recommended  locations  of  the directories containing the include
              files needed for developing Python extensions  and  embedding  the
              interpreter.

       ~/.pythonrc.py
              User-specific  initialization  file loaded by the user module; not
              used by default or by most applications.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       PYTHONHOME
              Change the location of the standard Python libraries.  By default,
              the  libraries  are  searched in ${prefix}/lib/python<version> and
              ${exec_prefix}/lib/python<version>,    where     ${prefix}     and
              ${exec_prefix}   are   installation-dependent   directories,  both
              defaulting to /usr/local.  When $PYTHONHOME is  set  to  a  single
              directory,  its  value replaces both ${prefix} and ${exec_prefix}.
              To specify different values for these, set $PYTHONHOME  to  ${pre‐
              fix}:${exec_prefix}.

       PYTHONPATH
              Augments  the default search path for module files.  The format is
              the same as the shell's $PATH: one  or  more  directory  pathnames
              separated   by  colons.   Non-existent  directories  are  silently
              ignored.  The default search path is installation  dependent,  but
              generally  begins  with ${prefix}/lib/python<version> (see PYTHON‐
              HOME above).  The  default  search  path  is  always  appended  to
              $PYTHONPATH.   If  a  script argument is given, the directory con‐
              taining the script is inserted in the path in  front  of  $PYTHON‐
              PATH.   The  search  path  can be manipulated from within a Python
              program as the variable sys.path.

       PYTHONSTARTUP
              If this is the name of a readable file,  the  Python  commands  in
              that  file  are  executed  before the first prompt is displayed in
              interactive mode.  The file is executed in  the  same  name  space
              where interactive commands are executed so that objects defined or
              imported in it can be used without qualification in  the  interac‐
              tive session.  You can also change the prompts sys.ps1 and sys.ps2
              in this file.

       PYTHONY2K
              Set this to a non-empty string to cause the time module to require
              dates  specified  as  strings  to include 4-digit years, otherwise
              2-digit years are converted based on rules described in  the  time
              module documentation.

       PYTHONOPTIMIZE
              If  this is set to a non-empty string it is equivalent to specify‐
              ing the -O option. If set to an integer, it is equivalent to spec‐
              ifying -O multiple times.

       PYTHONDEBUG
              If  this is set to a non-empty string it is equivalent to specify‐
              ing the -d option. If set to an integer, it is equivalent to spec‐
              ifying -d multiple times.

       PYTHONDONTWRITEBYTECODE
              If  this is set to a non-empty string it is equivalent to specify‐
              ing the -B option (don't try to write .py[co] files).

       PYTHONINSPECT
              If this is set to a non-empty string it is equivalent to  specify‐
              ing the -i option.
       PYTHONIOENCODING
              If  this  is  set before running the interpreter, it overrides the
              encoding used for stdin/stdout/stderr,  in  the  syntax  encoding‐
              name:errorhandler  The  errorhandler  part is optional and has the
              same meaning as in str.encode. For stderr, the errorhandler
               part is ignored; the handler will always be ´backslashreplace´.

       PYTHONNOUSERSITE
              If this is set to a non-empty string it is equivalent to  specify‐
              ing the -s option (Don't add the user site directory to sys.path).

       PYTHONUNBUFFERED
              If  this is set to a non-empty string it is equivalent to specify‐
              ing the -u option.

       PYTHONVERBOSE
              If this is set to a non-empty string it is equivalent to  specify‐
              ing the -v option. If set to an integer, it is equivalent to spec‐
              ifying -v multiple times.

       PYTHONWARNINGS
              If this is set to a comma-separated string  it  is  equivalent  to
              specifying the -W option for each separate value.

       PYTHONHASHSEED
              If  this  variable  is  set to "random", the effect is the same as
              specifying the -R option: a random  value  is  used  to  seed  the
              hashes of str, bytes and datetime objects.

              If  PYTHONHASHSEED  is  set  to  an integer value, it is used as a
              fixed seed for generating the hash() of the types covered  by  the
              hash  randomization.   Its purpose is to allow repeatable hashing,
              such as for selftests for the interpreter itself, or  to  allow  a
              cluster of python processes to share hash values.

              The  integer must be a decimal number in the range [0,4294967295].
              Specifying the value 0 will lead to the same hash values  as  when
              hash randomization is disabled.

AUTHOR
       The Python Software Foundation: http://www.python.org/psf

INTERNET RESOURCES
       Main website:  http://www.python.org/
       Documentation:  http://docs.python.org/
       Developer resources:  http://docs.python.org/devguide/
       Downloads:  http://python.org/download/
       Module repository:  http://pypi.python.org/
       Newsgroups:  comp.lang.python, comp.lang.python.announce

LICENSING
       Python  is  distributed  under  an  Open  Source  license.   See the file
       "LICENSE" in the Python source distribution for information  on  terms  &
       conditions  for accessing and otherwise using Python and for a DISCLAIMER
       OF ALL WARRANTIES.



                                     $Date$                            PYTHON(1)