RECODE(1)                              FSF                             RECODE(1)

       recode - converts files between character sets

       recode [OPTION]... [ [CHARSET] | REQUEST [FILE]... ]

       Free `recode' converts files between various character sets and surfaces.

       If a long option shows an argument as mandatory, then it is mandatory for
       the equivalent short option also.  Similarly for optional arguments.

       -l, --list[=FORMAT]
              list one or all known charsets and aliases

       -k, --known=PAIRS
              restrict charsets according to known PAIRS list

       -h, --header[=[LN/]NAME]
              write table NAME on stdout using LN, then exit

       -F, --freeze-tables
              write out a C module holding all tables

       -T, --find-subsets
              report all charsets being subset of others

       -C, --copyright
              display Copyright and copying conditions

       --help display this help and exit

              output version information and exit

   Operation modes:
       -v, --verbose
              explain sequence of steps and report progress

       -q, --quiet, --silent
              inhibit messages about irreversible recodings

       -f, --force
              force recodings even when not reversible

       -t, --touch
              touch the recoded files after replacement

       -i, --sequence=files
              use intermediate files for sequencing passes

              use memory buffers for sequencing passes

       -p, --sequence=pipe
              use pipe machinery for sequencing passes

   Fine tuning:
       -s, --strict
              use strict mappings, even loose characters
       -d, --diacritics
              convert only diacritics or alike for HTML/LaTeX

       -S, --source[=LN]
              limit recoding to strings and comments as for LN

       -c, --colons
              use colons instead of double quotes for diaeresis

       -g, --graphics
              approximate IBMPC rulers by ASCII graphics

       -x, --ignore=CHARSET
              ignore CHARSET while choosing a recoding path

       Option -l with no FORMAT nor CHARSET list  available  charsets  and  sur‐
       faces.   FORMAT is `decimal', `octal', `hexadecimal' or `full' (or one of
       `dohf').  Unless DEFAULT_CHARSET is set in environment, CHARSET  defaults
       to  the  locale dependent encoding, determined by LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LANG.
       With -k, possible before charsets are listed for the given after CHARSET,
       both    being    tabular    charsets,    with    PAIRS    of   the   form
       `BEF1:AFT1,BEF2:AFT2,...'  and BEFs and AFTs being  codes  are  given  as
       decimal numbers.  LN is some language, it may be `c', `perl' or `po'; `c'
       is the default.

       ING]...   ENCODING  is [CHARSET][/[SURFACE]]...; REQUEST often looks like
       BEFORE..AFTER, with BEFORE and AFTER being charsets.  An omitted  CHARSET
       implies  the  usual  charset;  an omitted [/SURFACE]... means the implied
       surfaces for CHARSET; a / with an empty surface name means no surfaces at
       all.  See the manual.

       If  none  of  -i  and -p are given, presume -p if no FILE, else -i.  Each
       FILE is recoded over itself, destroying the  original.   If  no  FILE  is
       specified, then act as a filter and recode stdin to stdout.

       Written by Franc,ois Pinard <>.

       Report bugs to <>.

       Copyright © 1990, 92, 93, 94, 96, 97, 99 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
       This  is  free software; see the source for copying conditions.  There is
       NO warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or  FITNESS  FOR  A  PARTICULAR

       The  full documentation for recode is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If
       the info and recode programs are properly installed  at  your  site,  the

              info recode

       should give you access to the complete manual.

Free recode 3.6                     June 2012                          RECODE(1)