TAIL(1)                           User Commands                          TAIL(1)

       tail - output the last part of files

       tail [OPTION]... [FILE]...

       Print  the last 10 lines of each FILE to standard output.  With more than
       one FILE, precede each with a header giving the file name.  With no FILE,
       or when FILE is -, read standard input.

       Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

       -c, --bytes=K
              output  the last K bytes; alternatively, use -c +K to output bytes
              starting with the Kth of each file

       -f, --follow[={name|descriptor}]
              output appended data as the file grows; -f, --follow,  and  --fol‐
              low=descriptor are equivalent

       -F     same as --follow=name --retry

       -n, --lines=K
              output  the  last K lines, instead of the last 10; or use -n +K to
              output lines starting with the Kth

              with --follow=name, reopen a FILE which has not changed size after
              N (default 5) iterations to see if it has been unlinked or renamed
              (this is the usual case of rotated log files).  With inotify, this
              option is rarely useful.

              with -f, terminate after process ID, PID dies

       -q, --quiet, --silent
              never output headers giving file names

              keep  trying  to open a file even when it is or becomes inaccessi‐
              ble; useful when following by name, i.e., with --follow=name

       -s, --sleep-interval=N
              with -f, sleep for approximately N seconds (default  1.0)  between
              iterations.   With  inotify  and --pid=P, check process P at least
              once every N seconds.

       -v, --verbose
              always output headers giving file names

       --help display this help and exit

              output version information and exit

       If the first character of K (the number of bytes  or  lines)  is  a  `+',
       print beginning with the Kth item from the start of each file, otherwise,
       print the last K items in the file.  K may have a  multiplier  suffix:  b
       512,  kB  1000,  K  1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, GB 1000*1000*1000, G
       1024*1024*1024, and so on for T, P, E, Z, Y.
       With --follow (-f), tail defaults to following the file descriptor, which
       means that even if a tail'ed file is renamed, tail will continue to track
       its end.  This default behavior is not desirable when you really want  to
       track  the  actual  name  of the file, not the file descriptor (e.g., log
       rotation).  Use --follow=name in that case.  That causes  tail  to  track
       the named file in a way that accommodates renaming, removal and creation.

       Written  by Paul Rubin, David MacKenzie, Ian Lance Taylor, and Jim Meyer‐

       Report tail bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
       GNU coreutils home page: <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/>
       General help using GNU software: <http://www.gnu.org/gethelp/>
       Report tail translation bugs to <http://translationproject.org/team/>

       Copyright © 2011 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+: GNU  GPL
       version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
       This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.  There
       is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

       The full documentation for tail is maintained as a  Texinfo  manual.   If
       the  info and tail programs are properly installed at your site, the com‐

              info coreutils 'tail invocation'

       should give you access to the complete manual.

GNU coreutils 8.12.197-032bb     September 2011                          TAIL(1)